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Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Person Name: C. Wesley (1707-1788) Meter: Author of "All creation join to say" in Hymns for Today's Church (2nd ed.) Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, [sic. 1738] he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

William Henry Monk

1823 - 1889 Person Name: W. H. Monk, 1823-89 Meter: Composer of "WÜRTEMBURG" in The Book of Common Praise William H. Monk (b. Brompton, London, England, 1823; d. London, 1889) is best known for his music editing of Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861, 1868; 1875, and 1889 editions). He also adapted music from plainsong and added accompaniments for Introits for Use Throughout the Year, a book issued with that famous hymnal. Beginning in his teenage years, Monk held a number of musical positions. He became choirmaster at King's College in London in 1847 and was organist and choirmaster at St. Matthias, Stoke Newington, from 1852 to 1889, where he was influenced by the Oxford Movement. At St. Matthias, Monk also began daily choral services with the choir leading the congregation in music chosen according to the church year, including psalms chanted to plainsong. He composed over fifty hymn tunes and edited The Scottish Hymnal (1872 edition) and Wordsworth's Hymns for the Holy Year (1862) as well as the periodical Parish Choir (1840-1851). Bert Polman

William F. Sherwin

1826 - 1888 Meter: Composer of "CHAUTAUQUA (EVENING PRAISE)" in The Hymnbook Sherwin, William Fisk, an American Baptist, was born at Buckland, Massachusetts, March 14,1826. His educational opportunities, so far as schools were concerned, were few, but he made excellent use of his time and surroundings. At fifteen he went to Boston and studied music under Dr. Mason: In due course he became a teacher of vocal music, and held several important appointments in Massachusetts; in Hudson and Albany, New York County, and then in New York City. Taking special interest in Sunday Schools, he composed carols and hymn-tunes largely for their use, and was associated with the Rev. R. Lowry and others in preparing Bright Jewels, and other popular Sunday School hymn and tune books. A few of his melodies are known in Great Britain through I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, where they are given with his signature. His hymnwriting was limited. The following pieces are in common use:— 1. Grander than ocean's story (1871). The Love of God. 2. Hark, bark, the merry Christmas bells. Christmas Carol. 3. Lo, the day of God is breaking. The Spiritual Warfare. 4. Wake the song of joy and gladness. Sunday School or Temperance Anniversary. 5. Why is thy faith, 0 Child of God, so small. Safety in Jesus. Mr. Sherwin died at Boston, Massachusetts, April 14, 1888. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Sherwin, W. F., p. 1055, i. Another hymn from his Bright Jewels, 1869, p. 68, is "Sound the battle cry" (Christian Courage), in the Sunday School Hymnary, 1905, and several other collections. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Catherine Winkworth

1827 - 1878 Meter: Translator of "Christ the Lord is risen again" in The Book of Common Praise Catherine Winkworth (b. Holborn, London, England, 1827; d. Monnetier, Savoy, France, 1878) is well known for her English translations of German hymns; her translations were polished and yet remained close to the original. Educated initially by her mother, she lived with relatives in Dresden, Germany, in 1845, where she acquired her knowledge of German and interest in German hymnody. After residing near Manchester until 1862, she moved to Clifton, near Bristol. A pioneer in promoting women's rights, Winkworth put much of her energy into the encouragement of higher education for women. She translated a large number of German hymn texts from hymnals owned by a friend, Baron Bunsen. Though often altered, these translations continue to be used in many modern hymnals. Her work was published in two series of Lyra Germanica (1855, 1858) and in The Chorale Book for England (1863), which included the appropriate German tune with each text as provided by Sterndale Bennett and Otto Goldschmidt. Winkworth also translated biographies of German Christians who promoted ministries to the poor and sick and compiled a handbook of biographies of German hymn authors, Christian Singers of Germany (1869). Bert Polman ======================== Winkworth, Catherine, daughter of Henry Winkworth, of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, was born in London, Sep. 13, 1829. Most of her early life was spent in the neighbourhood of Manchester. Subsequently she removed with the family to Clifton, near Bristol. She died suddenly of heart disease, at Monnetier, in Savoy, in July, 1878. Miss Winkworth published:— Translations from the German of the Life of Pastor Fliedner, the Founder of the Sisterhood of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserworth, 1861; and of the Life of Amelia Sieveking, 1863. Her sympathy with practical efforts for the benefit of women, and with a pure devotional life, as seen in these translations, received from her the most practical illustration possible in the deep and active interest which she took in educational work in connection with the Clifton Association for the Higher Education of Women, and kindred societies there and elsewhere. Our interest, however, is mainly centred in her hymnological work as embodied in her:— (1) Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855. (2) Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858. (3) The Chorale Book for England (containing translations from the German, together with music), 1863; and (4) her charming biographical work, the Christian Singers of Germany, 1869. In a sympathetic article on Miss Winkworth in the Inquirer of July 20, 1878, Dr. Martineau says:— "The translations contained in these volumes are invariably faithful, and for the most part both terse and delicate; and an admirable art is applied to the management of complex and difficult versification. They have not quite the fire of John Wesley's versions of Moravian hymns, or the wonderful fusion and reproduction of thought which may be found in Coleridge. But if less flowing they are more conscientious than either, and attain a result as poetical as severe exactitude admits, being only a little short of ‘native music'" Dr. Percival, then Principal of Clifton College, also wrote concerning her (in the Bristol Times and Mirror), in July, 1878:— "She was a person of remarkable intellectual and social gifts, and very unusual attainments; but what specially distinguished her was her combination of rare ability and great knowledge with a certain tender and sympathetic refinement which constitutes the special charm of the true womanly character." Dr. Martineau (as above) says her religious life afforded "a happy example of the piety which the Church of England discipline may implant.....The fast hold she retained of her discipleship of Christ was no example of ‘feminine simplicity,' carrying on the childish mind into maturer years, but the clear allegiance of a firm mind, familiar with the pretensions of non-Christian schools, well able to test them, and undiverted by them from her first love." Miss Winkworth, although not the earliest of modern translators from the German into English, is certainly the foremost in rank and popularity. Her translations are the most widely used of any from that language, and have had more to do with the modern revival of the English use of German hymns than the versions of any other writer. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================ See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Michael Weisse

1480 - 1534 Person Name: Rev. M. Weisse Meter: Author of "Christ the Lord is risen again" in The Book of Common Praise Michael Weiss was born at Neisse, in Silesia. He was a pastor among the Bohemian Brethren, and a contemporary with Luther. His hymns have received commendation. He died in 1540. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A. 1872. ============ Weisse, Michael (Weiss, Wiss, Wegs, Weys, Weyss), was born circa 1480, in Neisse, Silesia, took priest's orders, and was for some time a monk at Breslau. When the early writings of Luther came into his hands, Weisse, with two other monks, abandoned the convent, and sought refuge in the Bohemian Brethren's House at Leutomischl in Bohemia. He became German preacher (and apparently founder of the German communities) to the Bohemian Brethren at Landskron in Bohemia, and Fulnck in Moravia, and died at Landskron in 1534 (Koch, ii. 115-120; Wackernagel's D. Kirchenlied, i. p. 727; Fontes rerum Austricarum, Scriptores, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 227, Vienna, 18G3, &c). Weisse was admitted as a priest among the Brethren at the Synod of Brandeis, in 1531, and in 1532 was appointed a member of their Select Council, but he had previously performed important missions for the Brethren. He was, e.g., sent by Bishop Lucas, in 1522, along with J. Roh or Horn, to explain the views of the Bohemian Brethren to Luther; and again, in 1524, when they were appointed more especially to report on the practices and holiness of life of the followers of the German Reformers. He was also entrusted with the editing of the first German hymn-book of the Bohemian Brethren, which appeared as Ein New Gesengbuchlen at Jungen Bunzel (Jung Bunzlau) in Bohemia in 1531. This contained 155 hymns, all apparently either translations or else originals by himself. The proportion of translations is not very clear. In the preface to the 1531, Weisse addressing the German Communities at Fulnek and Landskron says, "I have also, according to my power, put forth all my ability, your old hymn-book as well as the Bohemian hymn-book (Cantional) being before me, and have brought the same sense, in accordance with Holy Scripture, into German rhyme." Luther called Weisse "a good poet, with somewhat erroneous views on the Sacrament" (i.e. Holy Communion); and, after the Sacramental hymns had been revised by Roh (1544), included 12 of his hymns in V. Babst's Gesang-Buch, 1545. Many of his hymns possess considerable merit. The style is flowing and musical, the religious tone is earnest and manly, but yet tender and truly devout, and the best of them are distinguished by a certain charming simplicity of thought and expression. At least 119 passed into the German Lutheran hymnbooks of the 16th and 17th centuries, and many are still in use. The following hymns by Weisse have also passed into English:— i. Christus ist erstanden. Von des Todes Banden. Easter. First published 1531 as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 273, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines. It is suggested by the older hymn, "Christ ist erstanden". In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 129. The translation in common use is:— Christ the Lord is risen again! This is a full and very good translation by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 37, and her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 58. It has been included in many recent English and American hymnals. Other translations are:— (1) "Christ (and 'tis no wonder"). This is No. 260 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. (2) "Christ our Lord is risen," by Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 322. ii. Es geht daher des Tages Schein. Morning. 1531 as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 318, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 455. The translations in common use are:— 1. The Light of Day again we see. In full, by H. J. Buckoll in his Hymns from German, 1842, p. 14. His translations of stanzas iii., iv., vi., vii., beginning “Great God, eternal Lord of Heaven," were included in the Rugby School Hymn Book, 1843. 2. Once more the daylight shines abroad. This is a full and very good translation by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858, p. 69, and her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 18. Repeated in Thring's Collection, 1880-82. iii. Gelobt sei Gott im höchsten Thron. Easter. 1531 as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 265, in 20 stanzas of 3 lines, with Alleluia. The translations in common use are: — 1. Praise God upon His heavenly throne. This is a free translation of stanzas 1, 4, 10, 19, 20, by A. T. Russell, as No. 112, in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. 2. Glory to God upon His throne. By Mrs. H. R. Spaeth, in the Southern Lutheran Service and Hymns for Sunday Schools , Philadelphia, 1883. iv. Gott sah zu seiner Zeit. Christmas. 1531 as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 244, in 10 stanzas of 9 lines. The translation in common use is:— When the due Time had taken place. By C. Kinchen, omitting stanza v., as No. 169 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1742 (1849, No. 20). In the ed. of 1886, No. 954 consists of stanza x., beginning “Ah come, Lord Jesus, hear our prayer." v. Lob sei dem allmächtigen Gott. Advent. 1531 as above, and thence in Wackernagel, iii. p. 230, in 14 stanzas of 4 lines. Included in V. Babst's Gesang-Buch, 1545, and recently as No. 12 in the Unverfälschter Liedersegen , 1851. In the larger edition of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1886, it is marked as a translation from a Bohemian hymn, beginning "Cirkev Kristova Boha chval." The translations are:— 1. Praise be to that Almighty God. By J. Gambold, omitting stanza xi.-xiii., as No, 246, in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. In the 1789 and later eds. (1886, No. 31), it begins “To God we render thanks and praise." 2. O come, th' Almighty's praise declare. By A. T. Russell, of stanzas i.-iii., v., as No. 26 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. vi. O Herre Jesu Christ, der du erschienen bistanza. For Children. On Christ's Example in His early years on earth . 1531 as above, and in Wackernagel, iii. p. 326, in 7 stanzas of 7 lines. The first three stanzas are translated as “Christ Jesus, Lord most dear," in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, pt. i., No. 278. The form in common use is that in Knapp's Evangelischer Lieder-Schatz , 1837, No. 2951, which begins "Nun hilf uns, o Herr Jesu Christ," and is in 3 stanzas of 4 lines, entirely recast. This is translated as:— Lord Jesus Christ, we come to Thee . In full from Knapp, by Miss Winkworth, in her Chorale Book for England , 1863, No. 179. Hymns not in English common use:— vii. Den Vater dort oben. Grace after Meat. 1531, and thence in Wackernagel, iii., p. 321, in 5 stanzas of 7 lines. In the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1136. Translated as, "Father, Lord of mercy," by J. V. Jacobi, 1122, p. 117. In his edition, 1732, p. 183, slightly altered, and thence in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, pt. i., No. 290. viii. Die Sonne wird mit ihrem Schein. Evening. 1531, and thence in Wackernagel, iii., p. 323, in 6 stanzas of 4 lines. In the Unverfälschter Liedersegen, 1851, No. 517. Translated as, "Soon from our wishful eyes awhile," by H. J. Buckoll, 1842. ix. Komm, heiliger Geist, wahrer Gott. Whitsuntide . 1531, and in Wackernagel , iii., p. 282, in 9 stanzas of 5 lines From the Bohemian as noted at p. 157, and partly suggested by the "Veni Sancte Spiritus reple " (q.v.). The translations are: (1) “Come, Holy Ghost, Lord God indeed." This is No. 285 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. (2) "Thou great Teacher, Who instructest." This is a translation of stanza vii., as No. 234 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 267). x. Lob und Ehr mit stettem Dankopfer. The Creation: Septuagesima . 1531, and in Wackernagel, iii., p. 287, in 5 stanzas of 16 lines. Translated as, “Praise, glory, thanks, be ever paid," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 137. xi. 0 Jesu Christ, der Heiden Licht. Epiphany. 1531, and in Wackernagel , iii. p. 248, in 2 stanzas of 14 lines. Translated as, "0 Jesus Christ, the Gentiles' Light." This is No. 253 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. In the Brüder Gesang-Buch, 1778, No. 1467, stanza ii. was rewritten. This form begins, "Erscheine alien Auserwahlten," and is in 4 stanzas of 4 lines. Translated as, "Lord, to Thy chosen ones appear," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 139. xii. Singet lieben Leut. Redemption by Christ. 1531, and in Wackernagel, iii. p. 243, in 16 stanzas of 4 lines. Translated as, "Sing, be glad, ye happy sheep." This is a translation of stanza xiv., by C. G. Clemens, as No. 299 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789. In the 1801 and later editions (1849, No. 403) it begins, "O rejoice, Christ's happy sheep." [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Mary A. Lathbury

1841 - 1913 Meter: Author of "Day is Dying in the West" in The Hymnbook Lathbury, Mary Ann, was born in Manchester, Ontario County, New York, Aug. 10, 1841. Miss Lathbury writes somewhat extensively for the American religious periodical press, and is well and favourably known (see the Century Magazine, Jan., 1885, p. 342). Of her hymns which have come into common use we have:— 1. Break Thou the bread of life. Communion with God. A "Study Song" for the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, written in the summer of 1880. It is in Horder's (Eng.) Congregational Hymns, 1884. 2. Day is dying in the west. Evening. "Written at the request of the Rev. John H. Vincent, D.D., in the summer of 1880. It was a "Vesper Song," and has been frequently used in the responsive services of the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle." It is in the Laudes Domini, N. Y., 1884. For these details we are indebted to S. W. Duffield's English Hymns, &c, N. Y., 1886. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Lathbury, Mary A., p. 640, i. Another hymn by this writer is, "Lift up, lift up thy voice with singing." [Praise to Christ), in Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos, 1878. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Robert Campbell

1814 - 1868 Person Name: R. Campbell, 1814-68 Meter: Translator of "At the Lamb's High Feast We Sing" in Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Robert Campbell was an advocate residing in Edinburgh. He is not much known as an author, but some of his hymns have been adopted in several hymnals. He was Roman Catholic. His death occurred in 1868. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A. 1872. ==================== Campbell, Robert. Advocate, of Sherrington, Scotland, was born at Trochmig, Ayrshire, Dec. 19, 1814. When quite a boy he attended the University of Glasgow. Though showing from his earliest years a strong predilection for Theological studies, eventually he fixed upon the Scottish law as a profession. To this end he entered the Law Classes of the University of Edinburgh, and in due course entered upon the duties of an advocate. Originally a Presbyterian, at an early age he joined the Episcopal Church of Scotland. He became a zealous and devoted Churchman, directing his special attention to the education of the children of the poor. His classical attainments were good, and his general reading extensive. In 1848 he began a series of translations of Latin hymns. These he submitted to Dr. Neale, Dr. Mills of Ely, and other competent judges. In 1850, a selection therefrom, together with a few of his original hymns, and a limited number from other writers, was published as Hymns and Anthems for Use in the Holy Services of the Church within the United Diocese of St. Andrews, Dunkeld, and Dunblane. Edinburgh, R. Lendrum & Co. This collection, known as the St. Andrews Hymnal, received the special sanction of Bishop Torry, and was used throughout the Diocese for some years. Two years after its publication he joined the Roman Catholic Church. During the next sixteen years he devoted much time to the young and poor. He died at Edinburgh, Dec. 29, 1868. From his collection of 1850, four translations were given in Hymns Ancient & Modern, 1861, "At the Lamb's high feast we sing;" “Come, pure hearts, in sweetest measures;" "Ye Choirs of New Jerusalem;" " Ye servants of a martyr'd God" (altered). Attention was thereby directed to his translations. They are smooth, musical, and well sustained. A large number, not included in his 1850 collection, were left by him in manuscript. From these Mr. O.Shipley has printed several in his Annus Sanctus, 1884. (C. MSS.) --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Ralph Vaughan Williams

1872 - 1958 Person Name: R. V. Williams, 1872-1958 Meter: Harmonizer of "ORIENTIS PARTIBUS" in The Liturgy of the Order of Buddhist Contemplatives Through his composing, conducting, collecting, editing, and teaching, Ralph Vaughan Williams (b. Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, England, October 12, 1872; d. Westminster, London, England, August 26, 1958) became the chief figure in the realm of English music and church music in the first half of the twentieth century. His education included instruction at the Royal College of Music in London and Trinity College, Cambridge, as well as additional studies in Berlin and Paris. During World War I he served in the army medical corps in France. Vaughan Williams taught music at the Royal College of Music (1920-1940), conducted the Bach Choir in London (1920-1927), and directed the Leith Hill Music Festival in Dorking (1905-1953). A major influence in his life was the English folk song. A knowledgeable collector of folk songs, he was also a member of the Folksong Society and a supporter of the English Folk Dance Society. Vaughan Williams wrote various articles and books, including National Music (1935), and composed numerous arrange­ments of folk songs; many of his compositions show the impact of folk rhythms and melodic modes. His original compositions cover nearly all musical genres, from orchestral symphonies and concertos to choral works, from songs to operas, and from chamber music to music for films. Vaughan Williams's church music includes anthems; choral-orchestral works, such as Magnificat (1932), Dona Nobis Pacem (1936), and Hodie (1953); and hymn tune settings for organ. But most important to the history of hymnody, he was music editor of the most influential British hymnal at the beginning of the twentieth century, The English Hymnal (1906), and coeditor (with Martin Shaw) of Songs of Praise (1925, 1931) and the Oxford Book of Carols (1928). Bert Polman


Meter: Composer of "CHRIST IST ERSTANDEN" in Christian Classics Ethereal Hymnary In some hymnals, the editors noted that a hymn's author is unknown to them, and so this artificial "person" entry is used to reflect that fact. Obviously, the hymns attributed to "Author Unknown" "Unknown" or "Anonymous" could have been written by many people over a span of many centuries.

Johann Rosenmüller

1619 - 1684 Person Name: Johann Rosenmüller, 1615-1686 Meter: Composer (attributed to) of "WÜRTTEMBERG" in The Cyber Hymnal Johann Rosenmueller, b. about 1615, Kursachsen; d. 1686, Wolfenbuettel Evangelical Lutheran Hymnal, 1908


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