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William Henry Monk

1823 - 1889 Person Name: W. H. Monk, 1823-89 Arranger of "DULCE CARMEN" in Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary William H. Monk (b. Brompton, London, England, 1823; d. London, 1889) is best known for his music editing of Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861, 1868; 1875, and 1889 editions). He also adapted music from plainsong and added accompaniments for Introits for Use Throughout the Year, a book issued with that famous hymnal. Beginning in his teenage years, Monk held a number of musical positions. He became choirmaster at King's College in London in 1847 and was organist and choirmaster at St. Matthias, Stoke Newington, from 1852 to 1889, where he was influenced by the Oxford Movement. At St. Matthias, Monk also began daily choral services with the choir leading the congregation in music chosen according to the church year, including psalms chanted to plainsong. He composed over fifty hymn tunes and edited The Scottish Hymnal (1872 edition) and Wordsworth's Hymns for the Holy Year (1862) as well as the periodical Parish Choir (1840-1851). Bert Polman

John Stainer

1840 - 1901 Composer of "LOVE DIVINE (STAINER)" in The Hymnal

Arthur Sullivan

1842 - 1900 Person Name: Sir Arthur Sullivan Composer of "FALFIELD" in The Presbyterian Book of Praise Arthur Seymour Sullivan (b Lambeth, London. England. 1842; d. Westminster, London, 1900) was born of an Italian mother and an Irish father who was an army band­master and a professor of music. Sullivan entered the Chapel Royal as a chorister in 1854. He was elected as the first Mendelssohn scholar in 1856, when he began his studies at the Royal Academy of Music in London. He also studied at the Leipzig Conservatory (1858-1861) and in 1866 was appointed professor of composition at the Royal Academy of Music. Early in his career Sullivan composed oratorios and music for some Shakespeare plays. However, he is best known for writing the music for lyrics by William S. Gilbert, which produced popular operettas such as H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance (1879), The Mikado (1884), and Yeomen of the Guard (1888). These operettas satirized the court and everyday life in Victorian times. Although he com­posed some anthems, in the area of church music Sullivan is best remembered for his hymn tunes, written between 1867 and 1874 and published in The Hymnary (1872) and Church Hymns (1874), both of which he edited. He contributed hymns to A Hymnal Chiefly from The Book of Praise (1867) and to the Presbyterian collection Psalms and Hymns for Divine Worship (1867). A complete collection of his hymns and arrangements was published posthumously as Hymn Tunes by Arthur Sullivan (1902). Sullivan steadfastly refused to grant permission to those who wished to make hymn tunes from the popular melodies in his operettas. Bert Polman

Ralph Vaughan Williams

1872 - 1958 Harmonizer of "HYFRYDOL" in The Worshipbook Through his composing, conducting, collecting, editing, and teaching, Ralph Vaughan Williams (b. Down Ampney, Gloucestershire, England, October 12, 1872; d. Westminster, London, England, August 26, 1958) became the chief figure in the realm of English music and church music in the first half of the twentieth century. His education included instruction at the Royal College of Music in London and Trinity College, Cambridge, as well as additional studies in Berlin and Paris. During World War I he served in the army medical corps in France. Vaughan Williams taught music at the Royal College of Music (1920-1940), conducted the Bach Choir in London (1920-1927), and directed the Leith Hill Music Festival in Dorking (1905-1953). A major influence in his life was the English folk song. A knowledgeable collector of folk songs, he was also a member of the Folksong Society and a supporter of the English Folk Dance Society. Vaughan Williams wrote various articles and books, including National Music (1935), and composed numerous arrange­ments of folk songs; many of his compositions show the impact of folk rhythms and melodic modes. His original compositions cover nearly all musical genres, from orchestral symphonies and concertos to choral works, from songs to operas, and from chamber music to music for films. Vaughan Williams's church music includes anthems; choral-orchestral works, such as Magnificat (1932), Dona Nobis Pacem (1936), and Hodie (1953); and hymn tune settings for organ. But most important to the history of hymnody, he was music editor of the most influential British hymnal at the beginning of the twentieth century, The English Hymnal (1906), and coeditor (with Martin Shaw) of Songs of Praise (1925, 1931) and the Oxford Book of Carols (1928). Bert Polman

Henry Thomas Smart

1813 - 1879 Person Name: Henry Smart Composer of "BETHANY" in Redemption Songs Henry Smart (b. Marylebone, London, England, 1813; d. Hampstead, London, 1879), a capable composer of church music who wrote some very fine hymn tunes (REGENT SQUARE, 354, is the best-known). Smart gave up a career in the legal profession for one in music. Although largely self taught, he became proficient in organ playing and composition, and he was a music teacher and critic. Organist in a number of London churches, including St. Luke's, Old Street (1844-1864), and St. Pancras (1864-1869), Smart was famous for his extemporiza­tions and for his accompaniment of congregational singing. He became completely blind at the age of fifty-two, but his remarkable memory enabled him to continue playing the organ. Fascinated by organs as a youth, Smart designed organs for impor­tant places such as St. Andrew Hall in Glasgow and the Town Hall in Leeds. He composed an opera, oratorios, part-songs, some instrumental music, and many hymn tunes, as well as a large number of works for organ and choir. He edited the Choralebook (1858), the English Presbyterian Psalms and Hymns for Divine Worship (1867), and the Scottish Presbyterian Hymnal (1875). Some of his hymn tunes were first published in Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861). Bert Polman

Edmund S. Lorenz

1854 - 1942 Person Name: E. S. Lorenz Arranger of "GEINSHEIM" in Tried and True Pseudonymns: John D. Cresswell, L. S. Edwards, E. D. Mund, ==================== Lorenz, Edmund Simon. (North Lawrence, Stark County, Ohio, July 13, 1854--July 10, 1942, Dayton, Ohio). Son of Edward Lorenz, a German-born shoemaker who turned preacher, served German immigrants in northwestern Ohio, and was editor of the church paper, Froehliche Botschafter, 1894-1900. Edmund graduated from Toledo High School in 1870, taught German, and was made a school principal at a salary of $20 per week. At age 19, he moved to Dayton to become the music editor for the United Brethren Publishing House. He graduated from Otterbein College (B.A.) in 1880, studied at Union Biblical Seminary, 1878-1881, then went to Yale Divinity School where he graduated (B.D.) in 1883. He then spent a year studying theology in Leipzig, Germany. He was ordained by the Miami [Ohio] Conference of the United Brethren in Christ in 1877. The following year, he married Florence Kumler, with whom he had five children. Upon his return to the United States, he served as pastor of the High Street United Brethren Church in Dayton, 1884-1886, and then as president of Lebanon Valley College, 1887-1889. Ill health led him to resign his presidency. In 1890 he founded the Lorenz Publishing Company of Dayton, to which he devoted the remainder of his life. For their catalog, he wrote hymns, and composed many gospel songs, anthems, and cantatas, occasionally using pseudonyms such as E.D. Mund, Anna Chichester, and G.M. Dodge. He edited three of the Lorenz choir magazines, The Choir Leader, The Choir Herald, and Kirchenchor. Prominent among the many song-books and hymnals which he compiled and edited were those for his church: Hymns for the Sanctuary and Social Worship (1874), Pilgerlieder (1878), Songs of Grace (1879), The Otterbein Hymnal (1890), and The Church Hymnal (1934). For pastors and church musicians, he wrote several books stressing hymnody: Practical Church Music (1909), Church Music (1923), Music in Work and Worship (1925), and The Singing Church (1938). In 1936, Otterbein College awarded him the honorary D.Mus. degree and Lebanon Valley College the honorary LL.D. degree. --Information from granddaughter Ellen Jane Lorenz Porter, DNAH Archives

Ludwig van Beethoven

1770 - 1827 Person Name: Beethoven Composer of "SARDIS" in Hymns of Consecration and Faith A giant in the history of music, Ludwig van Beethoven (b. Bonn, Germany, 1770; d. Vienna, Austria, 1827) progressed from early musical promise to worldwide, lasting fame. By the age of fourteen he was an accomplished viola and organ player, but he became famous primarily because of his compositions, including nine symphonies, eleven overtures, thirty piano sonatas, sixteen string quartets, the Mass in C, and the Missa Solemnis. He wrote no music for congregational use, but various arrangers adapted some of his musical themes as hymn tunes; the most famous of these is ODE TO JOY from the Ninth Symphony. Although it would appear that the great calamity of Beethoven's life was his loss of hearing, which turned to total deafness during the last decade of his life, he composed his greatest works during this period. Bert Polman

George F. Root

1820 - 1895 Arranger of "AUTUMN" in Services for Congregational Worship. The New Hymn and Tune Book Root, George F., MUS. DOC, born in Sheffield, Berkshire County, Mass., Aug. 30, 1820. He is much more widely known as a composer of popular music than as a hymn writer. Four of his hymns are in I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs & Solos, 1878. Nos. 16, 100, 293, and 297. A sympathetic biographical sketch, with portrait, is in The Tonic Sol-Fa Reporter, Sep. 1886. He died Aug. 6, 1895. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ===================== George Frederick Root was born in Sheffield, Mass., August 30, 1820. His father moved to North Reading, near Boston, when the boy was six years old, and there his youth was spent. He was always fond of music— not singing at all as a boy, but played upon every kind of instrument that came in his way. At thirteen it was his pride that he could "play a tune" on as many instruments as he was years old. His dream of life was to be a musician, although such an ambition was looked down upon by all his relatives and friends, excepting a fond mother. In the fall of 1838 he went to Boston and made an engagement to work for Mr. A. N. Johnson and take lessons on the piano. His father and one of the brothers were at the time in South America, and the mother, with six younger children, was at home on the farm. When he secured the engagement with Mr. Johnson to receive three dollars a week and board and lessons, the neighbors became interested and encouraged him to go ahead, they promising to help look after the farm and see that the family got along. The young man's happiness over these events can better be imagined than described. On the second day of October, 1838, he entered upon his duties in his new heaven on earth located at Harmony Hall, Mr. Johnson's music-room, in Boston. His duties were to see to the fires, care for the room, answer callers, give information about Mr. Johnson when he was out, and practice his lessons when not otherwise engaged. He worked industriously and made steady progress. It was but a few weeks till Mr. Johnson had him playing for the prayer-meeting, and but a few more till he began turning over pupils to him. In about seven weeks' time Mr. Johnson encouraged him by a considerable increase of salary. A most important event to him was meeting Dr. Lowell Mason and being accepted as a bass singer in the celebrated Bowdoin Street choir. Also, on Mr. Johnson's recommendation, he began taking private voice lessons of Mr. Geo. Jas. Webb, the then celebrated voice teacher of Boston. He continued at least a year with Mr. Webb. His first real singing class was taught the following fall, 1839, at the North End. It lasted nearly through the winter, and on the closing night his class made him a present of a silver goblet, suitably engraved, which he kept among his treasures. Before the first year was up Mr. Johnson proposed a five year partnership, by which Mr. Root was to receive one-third of their earnings, and the former was to have the privilege of visiting Germany part of the time if he chose. They then changed their quarters to three rooms in the basement of Park Street Church. The annual rental was six hundred dollars. They were kept quite busy. At this time Dr. Mason's music teaching in the public schools was a growing success, and Messrs. Johnson and Root were employed to assist him. Drs. Mason and Webb had introduced what is now called Musical Conventions a year or two previous to this. They called them "The Teachers' Class." Teachers and singers were called to Boston from surrounding territory to study and practice pretty much as they do now at normals. In 1841 Mr. Root became one of the teachers in this class. He taught vocal training and continued this work for years afterward in Dr. Mason's teachers' classes, and later incorporated the same method in his own normals. During this year Mr. Johnson went to Germany, and left the two large church choirs (Winter Street and Park Street) in charge of Mr. Root. One of the organs was played by a pupil — Mr. S. A. Bancroft. Everything went smoothly during Mr. Johnson's absence as it did also after his return. During the last year of the five-year partnership, Mr. Root was called to take the organ at Bowdoin Street, Mr. Mason changing to Winter Street. An amicable settlement was made between Messrs. Johnson and Root, and the partnership dissolved. In 1811, Mr. Jacob Abbott (father of Lyman Abbott)and his three brothers had established a young ladies' school in New York City. They wanted a music teacher, and offered the position to Mr. Root. They also secured him the organ and choir of the Mercer Street Church, with prospects for other good work. It required pretty strong persuasive arguments to tempt Mr. Root to leave Boston, he was doing well there, and as the sequel shows, there was an attraction in Boston that held him in too tight a grasp to be relinquished by the mere offer of greater power and place. He made up his mind, however, only after getting the consent of the powders of Boston to take with him this [to him] the greatest attraction of the city — Miss Mary Olive Woodman — an accomplished lady, a sweet singer, and a member of a prominent family of musicians. He went to New York first to prepare a home, and in August, 1845, returned for his bride, who took her place in his New York choir as leading soprano, and through his long and eventful career she was ever at his side, a true helpmeet. He was soon employed at Rutger's Female Institute, Miss Haines' School for Young Ladies, Union Theological Seminary and the New York State Institution for the Blind. Within six weeks after he arrived in New York his time was fully occupied. He continued with Mr. Abbott's young ladies' school ten years. While teaching in New York he continued his summer work with Messrs. Mason and Webb in Teachers' Classes. Up to the year 1849 he had written but little music; only a few hymn tunes while in Boston. He needed more music for the young ladies of his schools, so he made his first book, The Young Ladies' Choir, of which he had enough copies made for his own use, as he had no thought of offering it to the public. Then in connection with Mr. J. E. Sweetser, they compiled the Root and Sweetser's Collection. Mr. Root did work enough for two men, hence broke down in health. Mr. Abbott suggested that he take a trip to Paris. After weighing the matter carefully, in December, 1853, he sailed, and in due time arrived at Paris, where he began studying French, voice culture and piano under celebrated teachers. After spending nearly a year abroad, he returned home in improved health and ready for active work. He began to feel the need of new music for his classes, and after some thought decided upon a musical play ; the subject and title, The Flower Queen. At the Institution for the Blind was a young lady, a former pupil, but now a teacher who had shown some poetical talent. He asked her to help him with the words. He would suggest in prose what the flowers might say and she would put it into rhyme. She did it so well that it seldom needed any alteration. This lady was the now famous Fanny Crosby. The cantata became very popular. About this time Mr. Root wrote a half dozen simple songs for the people. They all sold pretty well, but Hazel Dell and Rosalie, the Prairie Flower, became the most popular, and had a large sale. It was in the summer of 1853 that the first real normal was held. Mr. Root originated it, and held it in New York. The principal teachers were Messrs. Mason, Root, Hastings, and Bradbury. This school became famous. Sessions were also held at North Reading, Mass., a village near Mr. Root's "Willow Farm Home," with Dr. Mason, Mr. Webb, Mr. Bradbury and himself as principal teachers. About this time Mr. Root decided to give up his work in New York, and devote himself entirely to conventions, normal work and authorship. He was eminently successful. Among the most eminent teachers and composers of our country have been students in Dr. Geo. F. Root's Normal Musical Institute. In 1860 Dr. Root settled in Chicago and entered the music publishing business with his brother E. T. Root, and C. M. Cady, as "Root & Cady," Mr. Root's reputation being the most important capital of the firm. His books and popular songs soon made the new firm prosperous. Then came the war with its horror. Dr. Root wielded his musical sword in the way of writing war songs, which made him famous. The Battle Cry of Freedom, Just Before the Battle, Mother, and others, made thousands of dollars for the music house. In the great Chicago fire of 1871 the interests of the firm of Root & Cady became engulfed in the general ruin. Their loss was upward of a quarter of a million dollars. They then sold their book catalogue, plates and copyrights to John Church & Co., of Cincinnati, and the sheet music plates and copyrights to S. Brainard's Sons, Cleveland. These sales realized about §130,000. The final result was that Dr. Root, his talented son F. W., and others became connected with John Church & Co. Under this new business relationship Mr. Root went right on with his normal and convention work; also issued a great many new books and cantatas. In 1872 the Chicago University very worthily conferred upon him the degree Doctor of Music. In 1886 he made a trip to Scotland and England, and arranged with publishers to issue some of his cantatas. He was royally received. Dr. Root was the author of about seventy-five books, nearly two hundred songs in sheet form, and many popular gospel songs. Dr. Root occupies a prominent place in the musical history of this country. It was Dr. Mason who lifted music from almost nothing and gave it an impetus, but he left no better follower than Dr. Root to carry on his work. He was a man of spotless integrity and high Christian character, and to know him was to love him. At the time of Dr. Root's death he was at Bailey Island, Maine, a summer resort, where he and other relatives had cottages. On August 6, 1895, he was seized with neuralgia of the heart — and died within one hour. He was buried at North Reading, Mass., his old home. --Hall, J. H. (c1914). Biographies of Gospel Song and Hymn Writers. New York: Fleming H. Revell Company.

Michael Haydn

1737 - 1806 Person Name: M. Haydn Composer of "BENEDICTION" in The Westminster Abbey Hymn-Book Johann Michael Hadyn Austria 1737-1806. Born at Rohrau, Austria, the son of a wheelwright and town mayor (a very religious man who also played the harp and was a great influence on his sons' religious thinking), and the younger brother of Franz Joseph Hadyn, he became a choirboy in his youth at the Cathedral of St. Stephen in Vienna, as did his brother, Joseph, an exceptional singer. For that reason boys both were taken into the church choir. Michael was a brighter student than Joseph, but was expelled from music school when his voice broke at age 17. The brothers remained close all their lives, and Joseph regarded Michael's religious works superior to his own. Michael played harpsichord, violin, and organ, earning a precarious living as a freelance musician in his early years. In 1757 he became kapellmeister to Archbishop, Sigismund of Grosswarden, in Hungary, and in 1762 concertmaster to Archbishop, Hieronymous of Salzburg, where he remained the rest of his life (over 40 years), also assuming the duties of organist at the Church of St. Peter in Salzburg, presided over by the Benedictines. He also taught violin at the court. He married the court singer, Maria Magdalena Lipp in 1768, daughter of the cathedral choir-master, who was a very pious women, and had such an affect on her husband, trending his inertia and slothfulness into wonderful activity. They had one daughter, Aloysia Josepha, in 1770, but she died within a year. He succeeded Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, an intimate friend, as cathedral organist in 1781. He also taught music to Carl Maria von Weber. His musical reputation was not recognized fully until after World War II. He was a prolific composer of music, considered better than his well-known brother at composing religious works. He produced some 43 symphonies,12 concertos, 21 serenades, 6 quintets, 19 quartets, 10 trio sonatas, 4 due sonatas, 2 solo sonatas, 19 keyboard compositions, 3 ballets, 15 collections of minuets (English and German dances), 15 marches and miscellaneous secular music. He is best known for his religious works (well over 400 pieces), which include 47 antiphons, 5 cantatas, 65 canticles, 130 graduals, 16 hymns, 47 masses, 7 motets, 65 offertories, 7 oratorios, 19 Psalms settings, 2 requiems, and 42 other compositions. He also composed 253 secular vocals of various types. He did not like seeing his works in print, and kept most in manuscript form. He never compiled or cataloged his works, but others did it later, after his death. Lothar Perger catalogued his orchestral works in 1807 and Nikolaus Lang did a biographical sketch in 1808. In 1815 Anton Maria Klafsky cataloged his sacred music. More complete cataloging has been done in the 1980s and 1990s by Charles H Sherman and T Donley Thomas. Several of Michael Hadyn's works influenced Mozart. Hadyn died at Salzburg, Austria. John Perry

Joseph Haydn

1732 - 1809 Person Name: J. F. Haydn Composer of "AUSTRIA" in The Westminster Abbey Hymn-Book Franz Joseph Haydn (b. Rohrau, Austria, 1732; d. Vienna, Austria, 1809) Haydn's life was relatively uneventful, but his artistic legacy was truly astounding. He began his musical career as a choirboy in St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna, spent some years in that city making a precarious living as a music teacher and composer, and then served as music director for the Esterhazy family from 1761 to 1790. Haydn became a most productive and widely respected composer of symphonies, chamber music, and piano sonatas. In his retirement years he took two extended tours to England, which resulted in his "London" symphonies and (because of G. F. Handel's influence) in oratorios. Haydn's church music includes six great Masses and a few original hymn tunes. Hymnal editors have also arranged hymn tunes from various themes in Haydn's music. Bert Polman

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