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John Ernest Bode

1816 - 1874 Author of "O Jesus, I have promised" in Hymnal for Colleges and Schools John E. Bode (b. St. Pancras, England, 1816; d. Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, England, 1874) A fine student at Christ Church, Oxford, England, and a prominent scholar who gave the famous Bampton Lectures ("for the exposition and defense of the Christian faith") at Oxford in 1855, was a rector in Westwell, Oxfordshire, and in Castle Camps. This gifted poet and hymn writer published Hymns for the Gospel of the Day, for Each Sunday and Festivals of Our Lord in 1860. Bert Polman ============== Bode, John Ernest, M.A., son of Mr. William Bode, late of the General Post Office, b. 1816, and educated at Eton, the Charter House, and at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating B.A. 1837, and M.A. in due course. Taking Holy Orders in 1841, he became Rector of Westwell, Oxfordshire, 1847; and then of Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, 1860. He was also for a time Tutor of his College, and Classical Examiner. His Bampton Lectures were delivered in 1855. He d. at Castle Camps, Oct. 6, 1874. In addition to his Bampton Lectures, and Ballads from Herodotus, he published Hymns from the Gospel of the Day for each Sunday and Festivals of our Lord, 1860; and Short Occasional Poems, Lond., Longmans, 1858. In addition to his well-known hymn, “O Jesu, I have promised " (q. v.), the following from his Hys. from the Gospel are also in common use:— 1. God of heaven, enthroned in might. H. Trinity. 2. Spirit of Truth, indwelling Light. Whitsuntide. -John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================= Bode, John E. , p. 151, ii. Additional pieces from his Hys.from the Gospel of the Day, &c, 1800, are in common use :— (1) "Sweetly the Sabbath bell" (Sunday); (2) "Thou Who hast called us by Thy word" (20th S. after Trinity). --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

St. John of Damascus

675 - 787 Person Name: John of Damascus Author of "The Day Of Resurrection" in The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada Eighth-century Greek poet John of Damascus (b. Damascus, c. 675; d. St. Sabas, near Jerusalem, c. 754) is especially known for his writing of six canons for the major festivals of the church year. John's father, a Christian, was an important official at the court of the Muslim caliph in Damascus. After his father's death, John assumed that position and lived in wealth and honor. At about the age of forty, however, he became dissatisfied with his life, gave away his possessions, freed his slaves, and entered the monastery of St. Sabas in the desert near Jerusalem. One of the last of the Greek fathers, John became a great theologian in the Eastern church. He defended the church's use of icons, codified the practices of Byzantine chant, and wrote about science, philosophy, and theology. Bert Polman ======================== John of Damascus, St. The last but one of the Fathers of the Greek Church, and the greatest of her poets (Neale). He was of a good family in Damascus, and educated by the elder Cosmas in company with his foster-brother Cosmas the Melodist (q. v.). He held some office under the Caliph. He afterwards retired to the laura of St. Sabas, near Jerusalem, along with his foster-brother. There he composed his theological works and his hymns. He was ordained priest of the church of Jerusalem late in life. He lived to extreme old age, dying on the 4th December, the day on which he is commemorated in the Greek calendar, either in his 84th or 100th year (circa 780). He was called, for some unknown reason, Mansur, by his enemies. His fame as a theologian rests on his work, the first part of which consists of philosophical summaries, the second dealing with heresies, and the third giving an account of the orthodox faith. His three orations in favour of the Icons, from which he obtained the name of Chrysorrhous and The Doctor of Christian Art, are very celebrated. The arrangement of the Octoechusin accordance with the Eight Tones was his work, and it originally contained no other Canons than his. His Canons on the great Festivals are his highest achievements. In addition to his influence on the form and music, Cardinal Pitra attributes to him the doctrinal character of the later Greek hymnody. He calls him the Thomas Aquinas of the East. The great subject round which his hymns are grouped is The Incarnation, developed in the whole earthly career of the Saviour. In the legendary life of the saint the Blessed Virgin Mary is introduced as predicting this work: the hymns of John of Damascus should eclipse the Song of Moses, rival the cherubim, and range all the churches, as maidens beating their tambours, round their mother Jerusalem (Pitra, Hymn. Grecque, p. 33). The legend illustrates not only the dogmatic cast of the hymns, but the introduction of the Theotokion and Staurotheotokion, which becomes the prevalent close of the Odes from the days of St. John of Damascus: the Virgin Mother presides over all. The Canons found under the name of John Arklas (one of which is the Iambic Canon at Pentecost) are usually attributed to St. John of Damascus, and also those under the name of John the Monk. Some doubt, however, attaches to the latter, because they are founded on older rhythmical models which is not the case with those bearing the name of the Damascene, and they are not mentioned in the ancient Greek commentaries on his hymns. One of these is the Iambic Canon for Christmas. His numerous works, both in prose and verse, were published by Le Quien, 1712; and a reprint of the same with additions by Migne, Paris, 1864. Most of his poetical writings are contained in the latter, vol. iii. pp. 817-856, containing those under the title Carmina; and vol. iii. pp. 1364-1408, the Hymni. His Canon of SS. Peter & Paul is in Hymnographie Grecque, by Cardinal Pitra, 1867. They are also found scattered throughout the Service Books of the Greek Church, and include Iambic Canons on the Birth of Christ, the Epiphany, and on Pentecost; Canons on Easter, Ascension, the Transfiguration, the Annunciation, and SS. Peter & Paul: and numerous Idiomela. In addition, Cardinal Mai found a manuscript in the Vatican and published the same in his Spicilegium Romanum, which contained six additional Canons, viz.: In St. Basilium; In St. Chrysostomum; In St. Nicolaum; In St. Petrum; In St. Georgium, and In St. Blasium. But M. Christ has urged grave objections to the ascription of these to St. John of Damascus (Anthologia Graeca Carminum Christorium, p. xlvii.). Daniel's extracts in his Thesaurus Hymnologicus, vol. iii. pp. 80, 97, extend to six pieces. Dr. Neale's translations of portions of these works are well known. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

J. M. Neale

1818 - 1866 Person Name: John Mason Neale, 1818 - 1866 Translator of "The Day Of Resurrection" in The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada John M. Neale's life is a study in contrasts: born into an evangelical home, he had sympathies toward Rome; in perpetual ill health, he was incredibly productive; of scholarly tem­perament, he devoted much time to improving social conditions in his area; often ignored or despised by his contemporaries, he is lauded today for his contributions to the church and hymnody. Neale's gifts came to expression early–he won the Seatonian prize for religious poetry eleven times while a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, England. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1842, but ill health and his strong support of the Oxford Movement kept him from ordinary parish ministry. So Neale spent the years between 1846 and 1866 as a warden of Sackville College in East Grinstead, a retirement home for poor men. There he served the men faithfully and expanded Sackville's ministry to indigent women and orphans. He also founded the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which became one of the finest English training orders for nurses. Laboring in relative obscurity, Neale turned out a prodigious number of books and artic1es on liturgy and church history, including A History of the So-Called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); an account of the Roman Catholic Church of Utrecht and its break from Rome in the 1700s; and his scholarly Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863). Neale contributed to church music by writing original hymns, including two volumes of Hymns for Children (1842, 1846), but especially by translating Greek and Latin hymns into English. These translations appeared in Medieval Hymns and Sequences (1851, 1863, 1867), The Hymnal Noted (1852, 1854), Hymns of the Eastern Church (1862), and Hymns Chiefly Medieval (1865). Because a number of Neale's translations were judged unsingable, editors usually amended his work, as evident already in the 1861 edition of Hymns Ancient and Modern; Neale claimed no rights to his texts and was pleased that his translations could contribute to hymnody as the "common property of Christendom." Bert Polman ======================== Neale, John Mason, D.D., was born in Conduit Street, London, on Jan. 24, 1818. He inherited intellectual power on both sides: his father, the Rev. Cornelius Neale, having been Senior Wrangler, Second Chancellor's Medallist, and Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and his mother being the daughter of John Mason Good, a man of considerable learning. Both father and mother are said to have been "very pronounced Evangelicals." The father died in 1823, and the boy's early training was entirely under the direction of his mother, his deep attachment for whom is shown by the fact that, not long before his death, he wrote of her as "a mother to whom I owe more than I can express." He was educated at Sherborne Grammar School, and was afterwards a private pupil, first of the Rev. William Russell, Rector of Shepperton, and then of Professor Challis. In 1836 he went up to Cambridge, where he gained a scholarship at Trinity College, and was considered the best man of his year. But he did not inherit his father's mathematical tastes, and had, in fact, the greatest antipathy to the study; and as the strange rule then prevailed that no one might aspire to Classical Honours unless his name had appeared in the Mathematical Tripos, he was forced to be content with an ordinary degree. This he took in 1840; had he been one year later, he might have taken a brilliant degree, for in 1841 the rule mentioned above was rescinded. He gained, however, what distinctions he could, winning the Members' Prize, and being elected Fellow and Tutor of Downing College; while, as a graduate, he won the Seatonian Prize no fewer than eleven times. At Cambridge he identified himself with the Church movement, which was spreading there in a quieter, but no less real, way than in the sister University. He became one of the founders of the Ecclesiological, or, as it was commonly called, the Cambridge Camden Society, in conjunction with Mr. E. J. Boyce, his future brother-in-law, and Mr. Benjamin Webb, afterwards the well-known Vicar of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, and editor of The Church Quarterly Review. In 1842 he married Miss Sarah Norman Webster, the daughter of an evangelical clergyman, and in 1843 he was presented to the small incumbency of Crawley in Sussex. Ill health, however, prevented him from being instituted to the living. His lungs were found to be badly affected; and, as the only chance of saving his life, he was obliged to go to Madeira, where he stayed until the summer of 1844. In 1846 he was presented by Lord Delaware to the Wardenship of Sackville College, East Grinstead. This can hardly be considered as an ecclesiastical preferment, for both his predecessor and his successor were laymen. In fact the only ecclesiastical preferment that ever was offered to him was the Provostship of St. Ninian's, Perth. This was an honourable office, for the Provostship is equivalent to a Deanery in England, but it was not a lucrative one, being worth only £100 a year. He was obliged to decline it, as the climate was thought too cold for his delicate health. In the quiet retreat of East Grinstead, therefore, Dr. Neale spent the remainder of his comparatively short life, dividing his time between literary work, which all tended, directly or indirectly, to the advancement of that great Church revival of which he was so able and courageous a champion, and the unremitting care of that sisterhood of which he was the founder. He commenced a sisterhood at Rotherfield on a very small scale, in conjunction with Miss S. A. Gream, daughter of the rector of the parish; but in 1856 he transferred it to East Grinstead, where, under the name of St. Margaret's, it has attained its present proportions. Various other institutions gradually arose in connection with this Sisterhood of St. Margaret's, viz., an Orphanage, a Middle Class School for girls, and a House at Aldershot for the reformation of fallen women. The blessing which the East Grinstead Sisters have been to thousands of the sick and suffering cannot here be told. But it must be mentioned that Dr. Neale met with many difficulties, and great opposition from the outside, which, on one occasion, if not more, culminated in actual violence. In 1857 he was attending the funeral of one of the Sisters at Lewes, when a report was spread that the deceased had been decoyed into St. Margaret's Home, persuaded to leave all her money to the sisterhood, and then purposely sent to a post in which she might catch the scarlet fever of which she died. To those who knew anything of the scrupulously delicate and honourable character of Dr. Neale, such a charge would seem absurd on the face of it; but mobs are not apt to reflect, and it was very easy to excite a mob against the unpopular practices and sentiments rife at East Grinstead; and Dr. Neale and some Sisters who were attending the funeral were attacked and roughly handled. He also found opponents in higher quarters; he was inhibited by the Bishop of the Diocese for fourteen years, and the Aldershot House was obliged to be abandoned, after having done useful work for some years, in consequence of the prejudice of officials against the religious system pursued. Dr. Neale's character, however, was a happy mixture of gentleness and firmness; he had in the highest degree the courage of his convictions, which were remarkably definite and strong; while at the same time he maintained the greatest charity towards, and forbearance with, others who did not agree with him. It is not surprising, therefore, that he lived all opposition down; and that, while from first to last his relations with the community at East Grinstead were of the happiest description, he was also, after a time, spared any molestation from without. The institution grew upon his hands, and he became anxious to provide it with a permanent and fitting home. His last public act was to lay the foundation of a new convent for the Sisters on St. Margaret's Day (July 20), 1865. He lived long enough to see the building progress, but not to see it completed. In the following spring his health, which had always been delicate, completely broke down, and after five months of acute suffering he passed away on the Feast of the Transfiguration (Aug. 6), 1866, to the bitter regret of the little community at East Grinstead and of numberless friends outside that circle. One trait of his singularly lovable character must not pass unnoticed. His charity, both in the popular and in the truer Christian sense of the word, was unbounded; he was liberal and almost lavish with his money, and his liberality extended to men of all creeds and opinions; while it is pleasing to record that his relations with his ecclesiastical superiors so much improved that he dedicated his volume of Seatonian Poems to the bishop of the diocese. If however success in life depended upon worldly advantages, Dr. Neale's life would have to be pronounced a failure; for, as his old friend, Dr. Littledale, justly complains, "he spent nearly half his life where he died, in the position of warden of an obscure Almshouse on a salary of £27 a year." But, measured by a different standard, his short life assumes very different proportions. Not only did he win the love and gratitude of those with whom he was immediately connected, but he acquired a world-wide reputation as a writer, and he lived to see that Church revival, to promote which was the great object of his whole career, already advancing to the position which it now occupies in the land of his birth. Dr. Neale was an industrious and voluminous writer both in prose and verse; it is of course with the latter class of his writings that this sketch is chiefly concerned; but a few words must first be said about the former. I.— Prose Writings.— His first compositions were in the form of contributions to The Ecclesiologist, and were written during his graduate career at Cambridge. Whilst he was in Madeira he began to write his Commentary on the Psalms, part of which was published in 1860. It was afterwards given to the world, partly written by him and partly by his friend, Dr. Littledale, in 4 vols., in 1874, under the title of A Commentary on the Psalms, from Primitive and Mediaeval Writers. This work has been criticised as pushing the mystical interpretation to an extravagant extent. But Dr. Neale has anticipated and disarmed such criticism by distinctly stating at the commencement that "not one single mystical interpretation throughout the present Commentary is original;" and surely such a collection has a special value as a wholesome correction of the materialistic and rationalistic tendencies of the age. His next great work, written at Sackville College, was The History of the Holy Eastern Church. The General Introduction was published in 1847; then followed part of the History itself, The Patriarchate of Alexandria, in 2 vols.; and after his death another fragment was published, The History of the Patriarchate of Antioch, to which was added, Constantius's Memoirs of the Patriarchs of Antioch, translated from the Greek, edited by the Rev. G. Williams, 1 vol. The whole fragment was published in 5 vols. (1847-1873). The work is spoken very highly of, and constantly referred to, by Dean Stanley in his Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Dr. Neale was naturally in strong sympathy with the struggling Episcopal Church of Scotland, and to show that sympathy he published, in 1856, The Life and Times of Patrick Torry, D.D., Bishop of St. Andrews, &c, with an Appendix on the Scottish Liturgy. In the same direction was his History of the so-called Jansenist Church in Holland, 1858. Next followed Essays on Liturgiology and Church History, with an Appendix on Liturgical Quotations from the Isapostolical Fathers by the Rev. G. Moultrie, 1863, a 2nd edition of which, with an interesting Preface by Dr. Littledale, was published in 1867. It would be foreign to the purpose of this article to dwell on his other prose works, such as his published sermons, preached in Sackville College Chapel, his admirable little devotional work, Readings for the Aged, which was a selection from these sermons; the various works he edited, such as the Tetralogia Liturgica, the Sequentiae ex Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi Collectae; his edition of The Primitive Liturgies of S. Mark, S. Clement, S. James, S. Chrysostom and S. Basil, with a Preface by Dr. Littledale; his Translation of the same; his many stories from Church History, his Voices from the East, translated from the Russ, and his various articles contributed to the Ecclesiologist, The Christian Remembrance, The Morning Chronicle, and The Churchman's Companion. It is time to pass on to that with which we are directly concerned. II. —Poetical Writings.— As a sacred poet, Dr. Neale may be regarded under two aspects, as an original writer and as a translator. i. Original Writer.—Of his original poetry, the first specimen is Hymns for Children, published in 1842, which reached its 10th edition the year after his death. It consists of 33 short hymns, the first 19 for the different days of the week and different parts of the day, the last 14 for the different Church Seasons. This little volume was followed in 1844 by Hymns for the Young, which was intended to be a sequel to the former, its alternative title being A Second Series of Hymns for Children; but it is designed for an older class than the former, for young people rather than for children. The first 7 hymns are "for special occasions," as "on goiug to work," “leaving home” &c.; the next 8 on "Church Duties and Privileges," "Confirmation," "First Holy Communion," &c, the last 13 on "Church Festivals,” which, oddly enough, include the Four Ember Seasons, Rogation Days, and the Sundays in Advent. In both these works the severe and rigid style, copied, no doubt, from the old Latin hymns, is very observable. Perhaps this has prevented them from being such popular favourites as they otherwise might have been; but they are quite free from faults into which a writer of hymns for children is apt to fall. They never degenerate into mere prose in rhyme; and in every case the purity as well as the simplicity of their diction is very remarkable. In the same year (1844) he also published Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, which were written during his sojourn in Madeira, and the aim of which (he tells us) was "to set forth good and sound principles in metaphors which might, from their familiarity, come home to the hearts of those to whom they were addressed." They are wonderfully spirited both in matter and manner, and their freedom of style is as remarkable as the rigidity of the former works. They were followed eleven years later (1855) by a similar little work entitled Songs and Ballads for the People. This is of a more aggressive and controversial character than the previous ones, dealing boldly with such burning questions as "The Teetotallers," "Why don't you go to Meeting?" &c. Passing over the Seatonian Poems, most of which were of course written before those noticed above, we next come to the Hymns for the Side, which is a fitting companion to the Readings for the Aged, and then to Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses, which was published just after the author's death (1866), and may be regarded as a sort of dying legacy to the world. In fact, the writer almost intimates as much in the preface, where he speaks of himself as "one who might soon be called to have done with earthly composition for ever." Many of the verses, indeed, were written earlier, "forty years ago," he says, which is evidently intended for twenty. The preface is dated "In the Octave of S. James, 1866," and within a fortnight, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, “the veil” (to use the touching words of his old friend, Dr. Littledale) "was withdrawn from before his eyes, and the song hushed on earth is now swelling the chorus of Paradise." Was it an accident that these verses dwell so much on death and the life beyond the grave? or did the coming event cast its shadow before? Not that there is any sadness of tone about them; quite the reverse. He contemplates death, but it is with the eye of a Christian from whom the sting of death has been removed. Most of the verses are on subjects connected with the Church Seasons, especially with what are called the "Minor Festivals:" but the first and last poems are on different subjects. The first, the "Prologue," is "in dear memory of John Keble, who departed on Maundy Thursday, 1866, "and is a most touching tribute from one sacred poet to another whom he was about to follow within a few months to the "land that is very far off." The last is a poetical version of the legend of "the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus," and is, the writer thinks, "the first attempt to apply to primitive Christianity that which is, to his mind, the noblest of our measures." That measure is the hexameter, and undoubtedly Dr. Neale employed it, as he did all his measures, with great skill and effect; but it may be doubted whether the English language, in which the quantities of syllables are not so clearly defined as in Latin and Greek, is quite adapted for that measure. Throughout this volume, Dr. Neale rises to a far higher strain than he had ever reached before. ii. Translations.— It is in this species of composition that Dr. Neale's success was pre-eminent, one might almost say unique. He had all the qualifications of a good translator. He was not only an excellent classical scholar in the ordinary sense of the term, but he was also positively steeped in mediaeval Latin. An anecdote given in an appreciative notice by "G. M." [Moultrie] happily illustrates this:— Dr. Neale "was invited by Mr. Keble and the Bishop of Salisbury to assist them with their new hymnal, and for this purpose he paid a visit to Hursley Parsonage." On one occasion Mr. Keble "having to go to another room to find some papers was detained a short time. On his return Dr. Neale said, ‘Why, Keble, I thought you told me that the "Christian Year" was entirely original.' ‘Yes,' he answered, 'it certainly is.' ‘Then how comes this?' and Dr. Neale placed before him the Latin of one of Keble's hymns. Keble professed himself utterly confounded. He protested that he had never seen this 'original,' no, not in all his life. After a few minutes Neale relieved him by owning that he had just turned it into Latin in his absence." Again, Dr. Neale's exquisite ear for melody prevented him from spoiling the rhythm by too servile an imitation of the original; while the spiritedness which is a marked feature of all his poetry preserved that spring and dash which is so often wanting in a translation. (i.) Latin.— Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin include (1.) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences (1851). He was the, first to introduce to the English reader Sequences, that is, as he himself describes them, " hymns sung between the Epistle and Gospel in the Mass," or, as he explains more definitely, "hymns whose origin is to be looked for in the Alleluia of the Gradual sung between the Epistle and the Gospel." He was quite an enthusiast about this subject:— "It is a magnificent thing,” he says, "to pass along the far-stretching vista of hymns, from the sublime self-containedness of S. Ambrose to the more fervid inspiration of S. Gregory, the exquisite typology of Venantius Fortunatus, the lovely painting of St. Peter Damiani, the crystal-like simplicity of S. Notker, the scriptural calm of Godescalcus, the subjective loveliness of St. Bernard, till all culminate in the full blaze of glory which surrounds Adam of S. Victor, the greatest of them all." Feeling thus what a noble task he had before him, it is no wonder that he spared no pains over it, or that he felt it his duty to adopt "the exact measure and rhyme of the original, at whatever inconvenience and cramping." That he succeeded in his difficult work, the verdict of the public has sufficiently proved. Of all the translations in the English language no one has ever been so popular as that of the Hora Novissima, in this volume, afterwards (1858) published separately, under the title of the Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny. Some original hymns may be as well known as "Jerusalem the Golden," "For thee, O dear, dear country," or "Brief life is here our portion,” but it would be hard to find any translations which come near them for extensive use. A second edition of the Mediaeval Hymns, much improved, came out in 1863, and a third, "with very numerous additions and corrections," in 1867. (2.) We next come to the Hymnal Noted, in which 94 out of the 105 hymns are the work of Dr. Neale. These are all translations from the Latin. The first part appeared in 1852, the second in 1854. Dr. Neale has himself given us an interesting account of his connection with this work:— "Some," he writes, "of the happiest and most instructive hours of my life were spent in the Sub-Committee of the Ecclesiological Society, appointed for the purpose of bringing out the Second Part of the Hymnal Noted It was my business to lay before them the translations I had prepared, and theirs to correct. The study which this required drew out the beauties of the original in a way which nothing else could have done, and the friendly collisions of various minds elicited ideas which a single translator would in all probability have missed." Preface, Mediaeval Hymns & Sequences (3.) The last volume of translations from the Latin published by Dr. Neale appeared in 1865, under the title of Hymns, chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. It was intended to be a companion volume to the Rhythm of Bernard of Cluny. In this work the writer gives the general reader an opportunity of comparing the translation with the original by printing the two together in parallel pages. Before quitting the subject of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin, it is only fair to notice that while they have been almost universally accepted by the English Church, and some of them adopted by dissenting congregations, they called down upon the translator a storm of indignation from an opposite quarter. The Roman Catholics accused him of deliberate deception because he took no pains to point out that he had either softened down or entirely ignored the Roman doctrines in those hymns. So far, they said, as the originals were concerned, these translations were deliberate misrepresentations. As however the translations were intended for the use of the Anglican Church, it was only to be expected that Neale should omit such hymns or portions of hymns as would be at variance with her doctrines and discipline. (ii.) Greek.— Dr. Neale conferred even a greater boon upon the lovers of hymnology than by his translations from the Latin, when he published, in 1862, his Hymns of the Eastern Church. In his translations from the Latin he did what others had done before; but in his translations from the Greek he was opening entirely new ground. "It is," he says in his preface to the first edition, "a most remarkable fact, and one which shows how very little interest has been hitherto felt in the Eastern Church, that these are literally, I believe, the only English versions of any part of the treasures of Oriental Hymnology." As early as 1853 he had printed a few of his versions in The Ecclesiastic, but it was not till the appearance of the complete volume that the interest of the general public was awakened in them. Then they became wonderfully popular. His translations "Christian, dost thou see them?" "The day is past and over," "'Tis the day of Resurrection," and his Greek-inspired "Art thou weary," and "O happy band of pilgrims," are almost as great favourites as "Jerusalem the golden," and the first in his Hymns of the Eastern Church, "Fierce was the wild billow," deserves to be. Dr. Neale had a far more difficult task before him when he undertook these Greek hymns than he had with the Latin, and he appeals to the reader "not to forget the immense difficulty of an attempt so perfectly new as the present, when I have had no predecessors and therefore could have no master." That difficulty in comparison with the Latin cannot be better stated than in his own words:— "Though the superior terseness and brevity of the Latin hymns renders a translation which shall represent those qualities a work of great labour, yet still the versifier has the help of the same metre; his version may be line for line; and there is a great analogy between the collects and the hymns, most helpful to the translator. Above all, we have examples enough of former translation by which we may take pattern. But in attempting a Greek canon, from the fact of its being in prose (metrical hymns are unknown) one is all at sea. What measure shall we employ? Why this more than that? Might we attempt the rhythmical prose of the original, and design it to be chanted? Again, the great length of the canons renders them un suitable for our churches as wholes. Is it better simply to form centos of the more beautiful passages? or can separate odes, each necessarily imperfect, be employed as separate hymns? . . . My own belief is that the best way to employ Greek hymnology for the uses of the English Church would be by centos." That, in spite of these difficulties, Dr. Neale succeeded, is obvious. His Greek hymns are, indeed, adaptations rather than translations; but, besides their intrinsic beauty, they at any rate give some idea of what the Greek hymn-writers were. In this case, as in his translations from the Latin, he omitted what he held was not good from his Anglican point of view, e.g., the Doxologies to the Blessed Virgin Mary. One point strikes us as very remarkable in these hymns, and indeed in all Dr. Neale's poetry, viz., its thorough manliness of tone. Considering what his surroundings were, one might have expected a feminine tone in his writings. Dr. Littledale, in his most vivid and interesting sketch of Dr. Neale's life, to which the present writer is largely indebted, has remarked the same with regard to his teaching: "Instead of committing the grave error of feminising his sermons and counsels [at St. Margaret's] because he had only women to deal with, he aimed at showing them the masculine side of Christianity also, to teach them its strength as well as its beauty." In conclusion, it may be observed that no one had a higher opinion of the value of Dr. Neale's labours in the field of ancient and mediaeval hymnology than the one man whose competency to speak with authority on such a point Dr. Neale himself would assuredly have rated above that of all others. Over and over again Dr. Neale pays a tribute to the services rendered by Archbishop Trench in this domain; and the present sketch cannot more fitly close than with the testimony which Archbishop Trench has given of his sense of the services rendered by Dr. Neale. The last words of his preface to his Sacred Latin Poetry (ed. 1864) are:—" I will only, therefore, mention that by patient researches in almost all European lands, he [Dr. Neale] has brought to light a multitude of hymns unknown before: in a treatise on sequences, properly so-called, has for the first time explained their essential character; while to him the English reader owes versions of some of the best hymns, such as often successfully overcome the almost insuperable difficulties which many among them present to the translator." [Rev. J. H. Overton, D.D.] Dr. Neale's original hymns and translations appeared in the following works, most of which are referred to in the preceding article, and all of which are grouped together here to facilitate reference:— (1) Hymns for Children. Intended chiefly for Village Schools. London, Masters, 1842. (2) Hymns for the Sick. London, Masters, 1843, improved ed. 1849. (3) Hymns for the Young. A Second Series of Hymns for Children. London, Masters, 1844. (4) Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers. London, Masters, 1844. (5) Hymns for Children. A Third Series. London, Masters, 1846. (6) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences. London, Masters. 1851; 2nd ed. 1861; 3rd. ed. 1863. (7) Hymnal Noted. London, Masters & Novello, 1852: enlarged 1854. Several of the translations were by other hands. Musical editions edited by the Rev. T. Helmore. It is from this work that a large number of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin are taken. (8) Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. (9) Songs and Ballads for the People. 1855. (10) The Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny, on the Celestial Country. London, Hayes, 1st ed. 1858: 3rd ed., with revision of text, 1861. It contains both the Latin and the English translation. (11) Hymns of The Eastern Church, Translated with Notes and an Introduction. London, Hayes, 1862: 2nd ed. 1862: 3rd ed. 1866 : 4th ed., with Music and additional notes, edited by The Very Rev. S. G. Hatherly, Mus. B., Archpriest of the Patriarchal (Ecumenical Throne. London, Hayes, 1882. Several of these translations and notes appeared in The Ecclesiastic and Theologian, in 1853. (12) Hymns, Chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. London, Hayes, 1865. This work contains notes on the hymns, and the Latin texts of the older amongst them. (13) Original Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses. London, Hayes, 1866. This collection of Original verse was published posthumously by Dr. Littledale. In addition to these works Dr. Neale published collections of Latin verse as:— 1.) Hymni Ecclesiae e Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus Gallicanis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis, desumpti. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1851: and (2) Sequentiae e Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi collectae. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1852. A few of his translations appeared from time to time in The Ecclesiastic; and a few of his original hymns in The Christian Remembrancer. In the collection compiled for use at St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, St. Margaret's Hymnal, Printed Privately for the use of the Community only, 1875, there are several of his hymns not traceable elsewhere. [Many of his translations and original compositions are not listed here]. Some of the original hymns in common use which remain to be noted are:— i. From Hymns for Children, 1842. 1. No more sadness now, nor fasting. Christmas. 2. 0 Thou, Who through this holy week. Passiontide. 3. The day, 0 Lord, is spent. Evening. 4. The grass so green, the trees so tall. Morning of the Third Day. 5. Thou art gone up, 0 Lord, on high. Evening. 6. Thou, Who earnest from above. Whitsuntide. 7. With Thee, 0 Lord, begins the year. Circumcision, or, the New Year. ii. From Hymns for the Sick, 1843. 8. By no new path untried before. Support in Sickness. 9. Count not, the Lord's Apostle saith. Communion of the Sick. 10. Lord, if he sleepeth, he shall sure do well. Watching. 11. 0 Thou, Who rising long before the day. In a sleepless Night. 12. The Lord hath given, the Lord hath taken away. Death and Burial. 13. There is a stream, whose waters rise. In dangerous Sickness or Fever. 14. They slumber not nor sleep. Guardian Angels. 15. Thy servants militant below. In Affliction. iii. From Hymns for the Young, 2nd series, 1844. 16. Lord Jesus, Who shalt come with power. Ember Week in Advent. 17. 0 God, in danger and distress. In time of Trouble. 18. 0 God, we raise our hearts to Thee. Ember-Week in Advent. From this, "0 Lord, we come before Thee now” is taken. 19. 0 God, Who lovest to abide. Dedication of a Church. 20. 0 our Father, hear us now. Rogation. The first of three hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 21. 0 Saviour, Who hast call'd away. Death of a Minister. 22. 0 Thou, Who lov'st to send relief. In Sickness. 23. 0 Thou, Who once didst bless the ground. Ember-Week in September. 24. 0 Thou, Who, when Thou hadst begun. On going to Work. 25. Still, 0 Lord of hosts, we share. Rogation. The Second of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 26. Strangers and pilgrims here below. On entering a new Dwelling to reside there. 27. They whose course on earth is o'er. Communion of Saints. From this, "Those whom many a land divides," is taken. 2S. Till its holy hours are past. Rogation. The third of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. iv. Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, 1844. 29. Work is over; God must speed it. Evening. v. Hymns for Children, 3rd series, 1846. 30. Before Thy Face, 0 God of old. St. John the Baptist. 31. By pain, and weariness, and doubt. St. Stephen. 32. First of the twelvefold band that trod. St. James. 33. Four streams through happy Eden flow'd. St. Mark. 34. Is there one who sets his face. St. Bartholomew. From this "He, for man who suffered woe," is taken. 35. Not a single sight we view. St. Matthias. 36. 0 Great Physician of the soul. St. Luke. 37. 0 Heavenly Wisdom, hear our cry. Christmas. “0 Sapientia." 38. 0 Key of David, hailed by those. Christmas. "0 Clavis David." 39. 0 Root of Jesse, Thou on Whom. Christmas. “O Radix Jesse." 40. 0 Thou, on Whom the nations [Gentiles] wait. Christmas. "0 Rex Gentium." 41. 0 Thou, Who earnest down of old [to call] . Christmas. "0 Adonai." 42. 0 Thou, Whose Name is God with us. Christmas. "0 Emmanuel." 43. 0 Very God of Very God. Christmas. "0 Oriens." 44. Saints of God, whom faith united. SS. Simon and Jude. 45. Since the time that first we came. St. Andrew. From this, "Every bird that upward springs," is taken. 46. That love is mighty love indeed. St. Barnabas. 47. We cannot plead, as others may. St. Matthew. 48. We have not seen, we cannot see. St. Thomas. 49. Would we go when life is o'er? St. Peter. v. Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. 50. Gabriel's message does away. Christmas. 51. Joy and gladness be to king and peasant. Christmas. 52. Joy to thee, joy to thee, Day of our victory. Easter. 53. Sing Alleluia, all ye lands. Easter. 54. The world itself keeps Easter Day. Easter. From this "There stood three Marys by the tomb," is taken. 55. With Christ we share a mystic grave. Easter or Holy Baptism. vi. From Sequences, Hymns, &c, 1866. 56. Can it, Master, can it be? Maundy Thursday. 57. Need it is we raise our eyes. All Saints. 58. Prostrate fell the Lord of all things. Maundy Thursday. 59. Rear the column, high and stately. All Saints. 60. The Paschal moonlight almost past. Easter. 61. Though the Octave-rainbow sometimes. Low Sunday. 62. When the earth was full of darkness. St. Margaret. 63. Young and old must raise the lay. Christmas Carol. vi. From the St. Margaret's Hymnal, 1875. 64. O gracious God, Who bid'st me now. On Leaving Some. 65. Thou Who came to save Thy people. For a School. 66. Thy praise the holy Infants shewed. Holy Innocents. These 66 hymns now in common use by no means represent Dr. Neale's position in modern hymnody. Many others must be added thereto. Even then, although the total is very large, it but feebly represents and emphasises the enormous influence which Di. Neale has exercised over modern hymnody. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Christopher Wordsworth

1807 - 1885 Person Name: Bishop Christopher Wordsworth Author of "O day of rest and gladness" in The Book of Common Praise Christopher Wordsworth--nephew of the great lake-poet, William Wordsworth--was born in 1807. He was educated at Winchester, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., with high honours, in 1830; M.A. in 1833; D.D. in 1839. He was elected Fellow of his College in 1830, and public orator of the University in 1836; received Priest's Orders in 1835; head master of Harrow School in 1836; Canon of Westminster Abbey in 1844; Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge in 1847-48; Vicar of Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berks, in 1850; Archdeacon of Westminster, in 1865; Bishop of Lincoln, in 1868. His writings are numerous, and some of them very valuable. Most of his works are in prose. His "Holy Year; or, Hymns for Sundays, Holidays, and other occasions throughout the Year," was published in [1862], and contains 127 hymns. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872. =================== Wordsworth, Christopher, D.D., was born at Lambeth (of which parish his father was then the rector), Oct. 30, 1807, and was the youngest son of Christopher Wordsworth, afterwards Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Priscilla (née Lloyd) his wife. He was educated at Winchester, where he distinguished himself both as a scholar and as an athlete. In 1826 he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where his career was an extraordinarily brilliant one. He swept off an unprecedented number of College and University prizes, and in 1830 graduated as Senior Classic in the Classical Tripos, and 14th Senior Optime in the Mathematical, won the First Chancellor's Medal for classical studies, and was elected Fellow of Trinity. He was engaged as classical lecturer in college for some time, and in 1836 was chosen Public Orator for the University. In the same year he was elected Head Master of Harrow School, and in 1838 he married Susan Hatley Freere. During his head-mastership the numbers at Harrow fell off, but he began a great moral reform in the school, and many of his pupils regarded him with enthusiastic admiration. In 1844 he was appointed by Sir Robert Peel to a Canonry at Westminster; and in 1848-49 he was Hulsean lecturer at Cambridge. In 1850 he took the small chapter living of Stanford-in-the-Vale cum Goosey, in Berkshire, and for the next nineteen years he passed his time as an exemplary parish priest in this retired spot, with the exception of his four months' statutable residence each year at Westminster. In 1869 he was elevated to the bishopric of Lincoln, which he held for more than fifteen years, resigning it a few months before his death, which took place on March 20th, 1885. As bearing upon his poetical character, it may be noted that he was the nephew of the poet-laureate, William Wordsworth, whom he constantly visited at Rydal up to the time of the poet's death in 1850, and with whom he kept up a regular and lengthy correspondence. Christopher Wordsworth was a very voluminous writer, his principal works being:— (1) Athens and Attica, 1836; (2) Pompeian Inscriptions, 1837; (3) Greece Pictorial and Descriptive, 1839; (4) King Edward VIth's Latin Grammar, 1841; (5) Bentley's Correspondence, 1842; (6) Theophilus Anglicanus, 1843; (7) Memoirs of William Wordsworth, 1851; (8) Hippolytus, 1853; (9) Notes at Paris, 1854; (10) A Commentary on the whole Bible, 1856-1870; (11) The Holy Year, 1862; (12) Church History, 1881-1883; many volumes of Sermons, and an enormous amount of Pamphlets, Addresses, Letters, Speeches, on almost every subject in which the interests of the church were concerned, and also on subjects connected with classical literature. Of his many works, however, the only one which claims notice from the hynmologist's point of view is The Holy Year, which contains hymns, not only for every season of the Church's year, but also for every phase of that season, as indicated in the Book of Common Prayer. Dr. Wordsworth, like the Wesleys, looked upon hymns as a valuable means of stamping permanently upon the memory the great doctrines of the Christian Church. He held it to be "the first duty of a hymn-writer to teach sound doctrine, and thus to save souls." He thought that the materials for English Church hymns should be sought (1) in the Holy Scriptures, (2) in the writings of Christian Antiquity, and (3) in the Poetry of the Ancient Church. Hence he imposed upon himself the strictest limitations in his own compositions. He did not select a subject which seemed to him most adapted for poetical treatment, but felt himself bound to treat impartially every subject, and branch of a subject, that is brought before us in the Church's services, whether of a poetical nature or not. The natural result is that his hymns are of very unequal merit; whether his subject inspired him with poetical thoughts or not, he was bound to deal with it; hence while some of his hymns (such as "Hark! the sound of holy voices," &c, “See the Conqueror mounts in triumph," &c, "O, day of rest and gladness") are of a high order of excellence, others are prosaic. He was particularly anxious to avoid obscurity, and thus many of his hymns are simple to the verge of baldness. But this extreme simplicity was always intentional, and to those who can read between the lines there are many traces of the "ars celans artem." It is somewhat remarkable that though in citing examples of early hymnwriters he almost always refers to those of the Western Church, his own hymns more nearly resemble those of the Eastern, as may be seen by comparing The Holy Year with Dr. Mason Neale's Hymns of the Eastern Church translated, with Notes, &c. The reason of this perhaps half-unconscious resemblance is not far to seek. Christopher Wordsworth, like the Greek hymnwriters, drew his inspiration from Holy Scripture, and he loved, as they did, to interpret Holy Scripture mystically. He thought that ”the dangers to which the Faith of England (especially in regard to the Old Testament) was exposed, arose from the abandonment of the ancient Christian, Apostolic and Patristic system of interpretation of the Old Testament for the frigid and servile modern exegesis of the literalists, who see nothing in the Old Testament but a common history, and who read it (as St. Paul says the Jews do) ‘with a veil on their heart, which veil' (he adds) 'is done away in Christ.'" In the same spirit, he sought and found Christ everywhere in the New Testament. The Gospel History was only the history of what "Jesus began to do and to teach" on earth; the Acts of the Apostles and all the Epistles were the history of what he continued to do and to teach from Heaven; and the Apocalypse (perhaps his favourite book) was "the seal and colophon of all." Naturally he presents this theory, a theory most susceptible of poetical treatment, in his hymns even more prominently than in his other writings. The Greek writers took, more or less, the same view; hence the resemblance between his hymns and those of the Eastern Church. [Rev. J. H. Overton, D.D.] During the time that Bishop Wordsworth was Canon of Westminster, and Vicar of Stanford-in-the-Vale cum Goosey, he published his collection of hymns as:— The Holy Year; or Hymns for Sundays and Holy-days, And other Occasions. London, Rivingtons, 1862. This work contained an extended Preface; a Calendar of Hymns; 117 Original Compositions; and a Supplement of 82 hymns from other sources. In the 3rd edition, 1863, the Supplement was omitted, and the Original hymns were increased to 127. Several of these hymns are annotated under their respective first lines, the rest in common use are:— From The Holy Year, first edition, 1862:— 1. Five pebbles from the brook. Temptation. Stanza ix. added in 1863. 2. Giver of law is God's [Thy] dear Son. Circumcision. Doxology added in 1863. 3. Gracious Spirit, Holy Ghost. Quinquagesima. 4. Holy, holy, holy, Lord, God of Hosts, Eternal King. Holy Trinity. 5. Holy of Holies! awful name. Epistle 5th Sunday in Lent. 6. How blest are hearts which Christ the Lord. Holy Matrimony. In 1863 in two parts, Pt. ii. being "Bless these Thy servants, gracious Lord." 7. How blessed is the force of prayer. St. Peter. In 1863, in two parts, Pt. i. being "Behold! at hand is Herod's doom." 8. How wondrous and mysterious are. Holy Baptism. In the 1863 ed. it is divided into four parts:— Pt. ii. "In Jordan Thou didst sanctify"; Pt. iii. "Thee, risen in triumph from the grave"; Pt. iv." Baptized in Christ we put on Christ." The cento, "By Water and the Holy Ghost," is also from this hymn. 9. In sorrow and distress. Ash Wednesday. 10. In Thy glorious Resurrection . Easter. In the 1863 ed. it begins, "Lord, Thy glorious Resurrection," and the doxology was added. 11. Lord, may we never, save to One. Against False Worship. Stanza viii. was added in 1863. 12. Lord not with [by] poor and paltry gifts. Offertory. 13. Lord, Who didst the Prophets teach. 2nd Sunday in Advent, or, Holy Scripture. The doxology was added in 1863. 14. Man fell from grace by carnal appetite. Gospel 1st S. in Lent. 15. Mankind in Adam fell. Good Friday. In the 1863 ed. it is divided into three parts: Pt. ii. being "We fell by Adam's sin;" and Pt. iii. "Thy Cross a Trophy is." 16. Not bound by chains, nor pent in cells. The Gifts of the Holy Ghost. This hymn is preceded by a special note on the Holy Spirit and His gifts. 17. Not gifts of prophecy can save. Self Discipline, or, 8th Sunday after Trinity. 18. 0 Jerusalem beloved, joyful morn has dawned on Thee. Purification of Blessed Virgin Mary, or, The Presentation. In the 1863 edition it is divided into two parts, Pt. ii. Being “Light the Gentile world to lighten, and thy glory Israel." 19. 0 Saviour, Who at Nain's gate. The Raising of the Widow's Son. 20. 0 Son of God, the Eternal Word. The Queen's Accession. 21. Once all the nations were as one. Babel and Sion a Contrast. 22. Sing, 0 sing this blessed morn. Christmas. In the 1863 edition a doxology was added, and the hymn was divided into two parts, Pt. ii. being, "God comes down that man may rise." 23. The banner of the Cross. Missions. In the 1863 ed. it is in three parts, Pt. ii., "Now for the Lord our God"; Pt. iii. "The earth from East to West." 24. The Galilean Fishers toil. Collect 4th Sunday in Advent. From this "0 Lord, when storms around us howl" is taken. 25. Thou bidd'st us visit in distress. The Promise of the Comforter, or, Sunday before Ascension. In the 1863 edition it is in two parts, Pt. ii. being “At Thy first birth, Thou, Lord, didst wait." 26. Thou hast a Temple founded. The Christian Temple; or, Epistle 11th Sunday after Trinity. 27. To-day, 0 Lord, the Holy James. St. James. In the 1863 ed. in two parts, Pt. ii. being "God in His word does not display." 28. Today with bright effulgence shine. Conversion of St. Paul. In the 1863 ed. it begins "Today in Thine Apostle shine," and is in two parts, Pt. ii being "From East to West, from North to South." 29. Upon the sixth day of the week. Easter Eve. Stanzas x., xi. of the 1863 text were added then, and the hymn was given in two parts, Pt. ii. being "By tasting the forbidden fruit." 30. We hear the tolling bell. Burial. The doxology was added in 1863, and the hymn was divided, Pt. ii. being "0 gracious Lord, to Thee." The cento "We see the open grave" is from this hymn. 31. When from the City of our God. The Good Samaritan. From this is taken “What beams of grace and mercy, Lord." 32. When Thou, 0 Lord, didst send the Twelve. SS. Simon and Jude. In the 1863 ed. stanza x. is new, and Pt. ii. begins, "Zeal, swollen with passion's cloudy smoke." ii. From the Holy Year, 3rd ed., 1863. 33. Heavenly Father, send Thy blessing. For Schools. In extensive use. 34. Holy, holy, holy Lord, Maker of this worldly frame. Septuagesima. Based on the Epistle and Gospel of the week. 35. Lo He comes! Whom every nation. Advent. This is headed "The First Advent of Christ, coming to save." 36. 0 fear not though before thee lies. Communion of the Sick. Pt. ii. begins, "The Resurrection and the Life." 37. On every new-born babe of earth. Churching of Women. Pt. ii. begins, "Bright angels of the King of kings." 38. Peace to this house! O Thou Whose way. Visitation of the Sick. Pt. ii. "0 Conqueror by suffering; Pt. iii. "Restore us to Thine house of prayer." 39. The day is gently sinking to a close. Evening. A beautiful hymn. 40. We all, 0 God, unrighteous are. The Lord our Righteousness. Sometimes "We all, O Lord, unrighteous are." Based upon the Epistle of the Sunday next before Advent. Pt. ii. begins "Behold the day, the glorious day." In addition to many of the hymns in the 1863 edition of The Holy Year being divided into parts, the texts of most of them were revised by the author, and are authorized. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Wordsworth, Bp. C. (Lincoln) , p. 1294, i. Of his hymns, noted on p. 1294, i., ii., we find that No. 39 appeared in his Holy Year in 1864; and Nos. 34, 35, and 40 in 1862. The first edition in which the longer hymns were divided into parts was that of 1868. With regard to the date of Bp. Wordsworth's death, we find this reference thereto in his Biography: "He expired soon after midnight on Friday, March 20, or perhaps, it might be said, early on the Saturday morning." This gives the date of his death as March 21, 1885. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907) =========================== See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Henry Alford

1810 - 1871 Author of "Ten Thousand Times Ten Thousand" in Rejoice in the Lord Alford, Henry, D.D., son of  the Rev. Henry Alford, Rector of Aston Sandford, b. at 25 Alfred Place, Bedford Row, London, Oct. 7, 1810, and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in honours, in 1832. In 1833 he was ordained to the Curacy of Ampton. Subsequently he held the Vicarage of Wymeswold, 1835-1853,--the Incumbency of Quebec Chapel, London, 1853-1857; and the Deanery of Canterbury, 1857 to his death, which took. place  at  Canterbury, Jan. 12, 1871.  In addition he held several important appointments, including that of a Fellow of Trinity, and the Hulsean Lectureship, 1841-2. His literary labours extended to every department of literature, but his noblest undertaking was his edition of the Greek Testament, the result of 20 years' labour.    His hymnological and poetical works, given below, were numerous, and included the compiling of collections, the composition of original hymns, and translations from other languages.    As a hymn-writer he added little to his literary reputation. The rhythm of his hymns is musical, but the poetry is neither striking, nor the thought original.   They are evangelical in their teaching,   but somewhat cold  and  conventional. They vary greatly in merit, the most popular being "Come, ye thankful  people, come," "In token that thou  shalt  not fear," and "Forward be our watchword." His collections, the Psalms and Hymns of 1844, and the Year of Praise, 1867, have not achieved a marked success.  His poetical and hymnological works include— (1) Hymns in the Christian Observer and the Christian Guardian, 1830. (2) Poems and Poetical Fragments (no name), Cambridge, J.   J.  Deighton, 1833.  (3) The School of the Heart, and other Poems, Cambridge, Pitt Press, 1835. (4) Hymns for the Sundays and Festivals throughout the Year, &c.,Lond., Longman ft Co., 1836. (5) Psalms and Hymns, adapted for the Sundays and Holidays throughout the year, &c, Lond., Rivington, 1844. (6) Poetical Works, 2 vols., Lond., Rivington, 1845. (7) Select Poetical Works, London, Rivington, 1851. (8) An American ed. of his Poems, Boston, Ticknor, Reed & Field, 1853(9) Passing away, and Life's Answer, poems in Macmillan's Magazine, 1863. (10) Evening Hexameters, in Good Words, 1864. (11) On Church Hymn Books, in the Contemporary Review, 1866. (12) Year of Praise, London, A. Strahan, 1867. (13) Poetical Works, 1868. (14) The Lord's Prayer, 1869. (15) Prose Hymns, 1844. (16) Abbot of Muchelnaye, 1841. (17) Hymns in British Magazine, 1832.   (18) A translation of Cantemus cuncti, q.v. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Alford, Henry, p. 39, ii. The following additional hymns by Dean Alford are in common use:— 1. Herald in the wilderness. St. John Baptist. (1867.) 2. Let the Church of God rejoice. SS. Simon and Jude. (1844, but not in his Psalms & Hymns of that year.) 3. Not in anything we do. Sexagesima. (1867.) 4. O Thou at Whose divine command. Sexagesima. (1844.) 5. 0 why on death so bent? Lent. (1867.) 6. Of all the honours man may wear. St. Andrew's Day. (1867.) 7. Our year of grace is wearing to a close. Close of the Year. (1867.) 8. Saviour, Thy Father's promise send. Whit-sunday. (1844.) 9. Since we kept the Saviour's birth. 1st Sunday after Trinity. (1867.) 10. Thou that art the Father's Word. Epiphany. (1844.) 11. Thou who on that wondrous journey. Quinquagesima. (1867.) 12. Through Israel's coasts in times of old. 2nd Sunday after Epiphany. (1867.) 13. Thy blood, O Christ, hath made our peace. Circumcision . (1814.) 14. When in the Lord Jehovah's name. For Sunday Schools. (1844.) All these hymns are in Dean Alford's Year of Praise, 1867, and the dates are those of their earliest publication, so far as we have been able to trace the same. --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

S. J. Stone

1839 - 1900 Person Name: Samuel John Stone, 1839-1900 Author of "O Thou before whose presence" in The Methodist Hymn-Book with Tunes Stone, Samuel John, a clergyman of the Church of England, the son of Rev. William Stone, was born at Whitmore, Staffordshire, April 25, 1839. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, where he was graduated B.A. in 1862. Later he took orders and served various Churches. He succeeded his father at St. Paul's, Haggerstown, in 1874. He was the author of many original hymns and translations, which were collected and published in 1886. His hymns are hopeful in spirit and skillfully constructed. He published several poetic volumes. He died November 19, 1900 --Hymn Writers of the Church, 1915 (Charles Nutter) ============================ Stone, Samuel John, M.A., son of the Rev. William Stone, M.A., was born at Whitmore, Staffordshire, April 25, 1839, and educated at the Charterhouse; and at Pembroke College, Oxford, B.A. 1862; and M.A. 1872. On taking Holy Orders he became Curate of Windsor in 1862, and of St. Paul's, Haggerston, 1870. In 1874 he succeeded his father, at St. Paul's, Haggerston. Mr. Stone's poetical works are (1) Lyra Fidelium, 1866; (2) The Knight of Intercession and Other Poems, 1872, 6th edition, 1887; (3) Sonnets of the Christian Year, first printed in the Leisure Hour, and then published by the R. T. Society, 1875; (4) Hymns, a collection of his original pieces and translations, 1886. He has also published Order of The Consecutive Church Service for Children, with Original Hymns, 1883. Mr. Stone's hymns, most of which are in common use, and several of which have a wide popularity, include:— 1. A sower went to sow his seed. The Sower. In his Hymns, 1886, the author says this hymn was ”Written specially in allusion to the sixteen years' work of the first Vicar [his Father] of St. Paul's, Haggerston, to whom the Parish was given in 1858, without Church, or School, or "Vicarage, or Endowment." 2. Bear the troubles of thy life. Patience. A translation of Thomas a Kempis's “Ad versa mundi tolera" (p. 23, ii.) made for the Rev. S. Kettlewell's Thomas á Kempis, 1882. 3. By Paul at war in Gentile lands. St. Mark. Written at Windsor in 1870, and published in his Knight of Intercession, 1872. 4. By Shepherds first was heard. Carol. Written in 1885, and published in the Parochial Magazine, 1885. 5. By Thy love which shone for aye. Litany of the Love of God. Written at Haggerston in 1883, and printed in the Monthly Packet, 1884. 6. Christ the Wisdom and the Power. For Church Workers. Written for the Church Society of St. Paul's, Haggerston in 1812, and published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 7. Dark is the sky that overhangs my soul. Sorrow succeeded by Joy. Written at Windsor in 1869 for the Monthly Packet, and printed therein 1869. Published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872, under the title of "Light at Eventide." 8. Deeply dark and deeply still. The Transfiguration. Written in 1871 and published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 9. Eastward, ever eastward. Processional for Sunday Morning. Written at Haggerston in 1876, and published in the Monthly Packet, 1884. 10. Faith, who sees beyond the portal. Faith, Hope, and Charity. Written at Windsor in 1869, and published in the Monthly Packet, 1869, and The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 11. Far off our brethren's voices. Missions. Written for the First Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions, 1871, and published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. "For Colonial Missions." 12. Give the word, Eternal King. Missions. Written for the First Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions, 1871. 13. Glory in heaven to God. Christmas Carol. Written in 1882 for G. H. Leslie's Cantata The First Christmas Morn, 1882. 14. God the Father, All, and One. For Unity. Written in 1883 for Canon G. Venables's Service for Unity, and appeared in the Monthly Packet, 1884. 15. God the Father's Only Son. Offices of Christ. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Article ii.of the Apostles' Creed, "And in Jesus Christ His Only Son our Lord." 16. God the Spirit, we adore Thee. The Holy Ghost. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, or) Article viii. of the Apostles' Creed, "I believe in the Holy Ghost." 17. Great Captain of God's armies. For Purity. Written in 1884 for the Church of England Purity Society, and printed in Church Bells, April 10, 1885. 18. Homeward we pass in peace. Close of Divine Service. Written in 1884 at Haggerston; and included in the author's Hymns, 1886, as a "Hymn after Benediction." 19. How can we praise Thee, Father? For the Fatherless. Written by request for "The Church of England Central Home for Waifs and Strays," 1882, and printed in the Monthly Packet, 1884. 20. Is there no hope for those who lie? Missions. Written in 1870 for the Monthly Packet; and also included in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 21. Jesu, to my heart most precious. Jesus, All in All. A translation of Thomas á Kempis's "De dulcedine Jesu," made for the Rev. S. Kettlewell's Thomas á Kempis, 1882. 22. Lo! They were, and they are, and shall be. St. Michael and All Angels. Written in 1875 for The Scottish Guardian, in which it was given in 1875. 23. Lord Christ, my Master dear. For Church Workers. Written for the Sunday School Teachers of St. Paul's, Haggerston, 1885, and given in his Hymns, 1886. 24. Lord of the harvest, it is right and meet. Missions, Thanksgiving. Written for the Second Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions, 1871, and published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. In the 1889 Appendix to Hymns Ancient & Modern it is somewhat altered. 25. Most true, most High; O Trinity. Holy Trinity. A translation of Thomas á Kempis's "O vera summa Trinitas" made for the Rev. S. Kettlewell's Thomas á Kempis, 1882. 26. My Saviour! I behold Thy life. Passiontide. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Article iv. of the Apostles' Creed, "Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was Crucified, Dead, and Buried." 27. Need hath the golden city none. Evening. Written at Windsor in 1869, and was published in the Monthly Packet in 1870. Also in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 28. None else but Thee for evermore. God the Father. The opening hymn of his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Article i. of the Apostles' Creed, "I believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth." 29. 0 joy, the purest, noblest. Evening. A translation in two parts of Thomas á Kempis's "O qualis quantaque laetitia" made for the Rev. S. Kettlewell's Thomas á Kempis, 1882. Pt. ii. begins "State of divinest splendour!" 30. 0 Thou by Whom the saints abide. Litany of the Holy Spirit. Written for a Confirmation at Haggerston, 1875, and included in the 3rd edition of The Knight of Intercession, 1875. 31. 0 Thou Whose love paternal. Holy Matrimony. Written at Windsor in 1863. 32. On Olivet a little band. Ascension. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Article vi. of the Apostles’ Creed, “He ascended into Heaven," &c. 33. Peace: legacy of mystic power. Peace . Written in 1882 for The Society of St. Katharine for Invalids, and published in the Monthly Packet, 1884. 34. Remember Me, show forth My death. Holy Communion. Written at Windsor for the Monthly Packet, in 1870; and included in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 35. The Son forsook the Father's home. Christmas. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Art. iii. of the Apostles' Creed, “Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, Born of the Virgin Mary." 36. The old year's long campaign is o'er. The New Year. Written at Windsor in 1868, and published in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 37. The whole creation groans and cries. Travail of the Creation. Written at Windsor for the Monthly Packet, 1869, and included in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 38. The world is sad with hopes that die. Everlasting Life. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Art. xii. of the Apostles' Creed, "The Life Everlasting." 39. Their names are names of Kings. Saints Days. Written at Windsor for the Monthly Packet in 1869, and included in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 40. There is an ancient river. The Spiritual River. Written at Windsor for the Monthly Packet, in 1870; and given in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. 41. Thou Who hast charged Thine elder sons. For School Teachers. Written in 1881 for St. Katharine's Training College for Mistresses; and subsequently adapted for use by teachers of both sexes. 42. Thou Who didst love us when our woes began. Temperance. Written for the Church of England Temperance Society Magazine, 1866. 43. Through midnight gloom from Macedon. Missions. Written for the First Day of Intercession for Foreign Missions, 1871. 44. Unchanging God, hear from eternal heaven. On behalf of the Jews. Written for the East London Mission to the Jews, 1885. It is included in an abridged form in the 1889 Appendix to Hymns Ancient & Modern. 45. While the Shepherds kept their vigil. Christmas Carol. Written at Windsor in 1868. 46. Winter in his heart of gloom. The Resurrection of the Body. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Article xi. of the Apostles' Creed, "The Resurrection of the Body." 47. Wistful are our waiting eyes. The Judgment. Published in his Lyra Fidelium, 1866, on Art. vii. of the Apostles' Creed, "From thence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead." 48. Ye faithful few of Israel's captive days. Holy Scriptures. Written at Windsor for the Monthly Packet, in 1869. Some of Mr. Stone's finer hymns, including "Round the Sacred City gather;" "The Church's One Foundation;" "Weary of earth and laden with my sin," and others, are annotated under their respective first lines. These, together with the 48 above, are given in his Hymns, 1886, some of the translations being recast. Additional translations from Thomas á Kempis are also noted under his name. Another hymn, inseparably associated with Mr. Stone's name is:— 49. Lord of our Soul's salvation. National Thanksgiving. This was ordered by command of Her Majesty the Queen to be sung at the Thanksgiving for the recovery of H. R. H. The Prince of Wales, on Feb. 27, 1872. In its original form it was in 7 stanzas of 8 lines, and was thus sung throughout the country. Owing however to the necessary restrictions as to time in the Cathedral service, a selection of four verses only--the First, a combination of the 2nd and 4th, the 6th, and the 7th--was adapted by the author for use in St. Paul's." The full text was included in The Knight of Intercession, 1872. Mr. Stone's hymns vary considerably in metre and subject, and thus present a pleasing variety not always found in the compositions of popular hymnwriters. His best hymns are well designed and clearly expressed. The tone is essentially dogmatic and hopeful. The absence of rich poetic thought and graceful fancy is more than atoned for by a masterly condensation of Scripture facts and of Church teaching given tersely and with great vigour. His changes and antitheses are frequently abrupt, in many instances too much so for congregational purposes, and his vocabulary is somewhat limited. His rhythm, except where broken either by long or by compound words, is rarely at fault, and his rhyme is usually perfect. A few of his hymns are plaintive and pathetic, as the tender "Weary of earth and laden with my sin;" others are richly musical, as "Lord of the harvest! it is right and meet:" but the greater part are strongly outspoken utterances of a manly faith, where dogma, prayer, and praise are interwoven with much skill. Usually the keynote of his song is Hope. He died Nov. 19, 1900. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ===================== Stone, S. J. , p. 1095, i. Of his hymns noted there the following appeared in Mission Life, 1872, vol. iii., pt. ii., pp. 685-88. No. 11, "Far off our brethren's voices," for Church Missionary Hymn Book, Colonial Missions, and No. 12, "Give the word, Eternal King," and No. 43, "Through midnight gloom from Macedon," for "Foreign Missions." In addition the following are also in common use:— 1. Awake, 0 Lord, the zeal of those who stand. Intercession for the Clergy. In the Church Missionary Hymn Book, 1899. 2. England, by thine own Saint Alban. St. Alban. In C. W. A. Brooke's Additional Hymns, 1903. 3. Our God of love Who reigns above. For Children. Appeared in the Church Monthly, July 1899, and Hymns Ancient & Modern, 1904. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Percy Dearmer

1867 - 1936 Author of "Remember All the People" in The Cyber Hymnal Dearmer, Percy, M.A., son of Thomas Dearmer, was born in London, Feb. 27, 1867, and educated at Westminster School and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A. 1890, M.A. 1896). He was ordained D. 1891, P. 1892, and has been since 1901 Vicar of S. Mary the Virgin, Primrose Hill, London. He has been Secretary of the London Branch of the Christian Social Union since 1891, and is the author of The Parson's Handbook, 1st edition, 1899, and other works. He was one of the compilers of the English Hymnal, 1906, acting as Secretary and Editor, and contributed to it ten translations (38, 95, 150, 160, 165, 180, 215, 237, 352, 628) and portions of two others (242, 329), with the following originals:— 1. A brighter dawn is breaking. Easter. Suggested by the Aurora lucis, p. 95, but practically original. 2. Father, Who on man dost shower. Temperance. 3. God, we thank Thee, not in vain. Burial. 4. Holy God, we offer here. Holy Communion. 5. Jesu, good above all other. For Children. 6. Lord, the wind and sea obey Thee. For those at Sea. 7. The winter's sleep was long and deep. St. Philip and St. James. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Johann Wolfgang Franck

1644 - 1710 Composer (melody) of "KOMM, SEELE" in The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada and the United Church of Canada Born: June 1644 (baptised: June, 17 1644) - Unterschwaningen Died: c1710 - ? Johann Wolfgang Franck was a German composer, who served at the court of the Margrave of Ansbach from 1665 to 1679 (or from 1673 to 1678). He composed a considerable body of sacred music for the court chapel, and in 1677 was made court chaplain. In January 1679 he was forced to flee after murdering one of the musician of the chapel and wounding his wife in a fit of jealousy. Already known as an opera composer through e.g. Die drey Töchter des Cecrops (the first extant German opera in full score), he found asylum in Hamburg, becoming musical director of the T am Gänsemarkt. Kapellmeister at Hamburg Cathedral from 1682 to 1686. In Hamburg he produced 14 operas between 1679 and 1686. From 1690 to 1695 he was in London, in whose concert life he was an active participant. In conjunction with Robert King, he gave there concerts between 1690 and 1693, and in 1695 he wrote a song for Colley Cibber's Love's Last Shift. Apart from his operas, Johann Wolfgang Franck wrote several books of sacred songs, also a number of songs for The Gentleman's Journal (1692-1694). --www.bach-cantatas.com/Lib/

P. H. B. Lyon

Author of "O God, before whose altar" in Hymnal for Colleges and Schools

W. G. Tarrant

1853 - 1928 Person Name: William G. Tarrant, 1853-1928 Author of "The fathers built this city" in The Beacon Song and Service book Tarrant, William George, B.A., b. 1853. Since 1883 Minister of the Wandsworth Unitarian Christian Church. Editor of The Inquirer, 1888-97. One of the editors of the Essex Hall Hymnal. 1890, and of the Revised ed., 1902. 1. Come, let us Join with faithful souls. The Faithful. 2. Draw nigh to God; He will draw nigh to you. The Divine Helper. 3. Long ago the lilies faded. The Constant Presence. 4. The Light along the ages. Easter. 5. With happy voices ringing. Children's Praise. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

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