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Georg Neumark

1621 - 1681 Person Name: Georg Neumark, 1621-1681 Meter: Author of "If You But Trust in God to Guide You" in Evangelical Lutheran Worship Georg Neumark (b. Langensalza, Thuringia, Germany, 1621; d. Weimar, Germany, 1681) lived during the time of the Thirty Years' War, when social and economic conditions were deplorable. He had personal trials as well. On his way to Königsberg to study at the university, traveling in the comparative safety of a group of merchants, he was robbed of nearly all his possessions. During the next two years he spent much of his time looking for employment. He finally secured a tutoring position in Kiel. When he had saved enough money, he returned to the University of Königsberg and studied there for five years. In Königsberg he again lost all his belongings, this time in a fire. Despite his personal suffering Neumark wrote many hymns in which he expressed his absolute trust in God. In 1651 he settled in Weimar, Thuringia, where he became court poet and archivist to Duke Johann Ernst and librarian and registrar of the city. Neumark wrote thirty-four hymns, of which "If You But Trust in God to Guide You" has become a classic. Bert Polman ============== Neumark, Georg, son of Michael Neumark, clothier at Langensalza, in Thuringia (after 1623 at Miihlhausen in Thuringia), was born at Langensalza, March 16, 1621; and educated at the Gymnasium at Schleueingen, and at the Gymnasium at Gotha. He received his certificate of dimission from the latter in Sept. 1641 (not 1640). He left Gotha in the autumn of 1641 along with a number of merchants who were going to the Michaelmas Fair at Leipzig. He then joined a similar party who were going from Leipzig to Lübeck; his intention being to proceed to Königsberg and matriculate at the University there. After passing through Magdeburg they were plundered by a band of highwaymen on the Gardelegen Heath, who robbed Neumark of all he had with him, save his prayer-book and a little money sewed up in the clothes he was wearing. He returned to Magdeburg, but could obtain no employment there, nor in Lüneburg, nor in Winsen, nor in Hamburg, to which in succession the friends he made passed him on. In the beginning of December he went to Kiel, where he found a friend in the person of Nicolaus Becker, a native of Thuringia, and then chief pastor at Kiel. Day after day passed by without an opening, till about the end of the month the tutor in the family of the Judge Stephan Henning fell into disgrace and took sudden flight from Kiel. By Becker's recommendation Neumark received the vacant position, and this sudden end of his anxieties was the occasion of the writing of his hymn as noted below. In Henning's house the time passed happily till he had saved enough to proceed to Königsberg, where he matriculated June 21, 1643, as a student of law. He remained five years, studying also poetry under Dach, and maintaining himself as a family tutor. During this time (in 1046) he again lost all his property, and this time by fire. In 1648 he left Königsberg, was for a short time at Warsaw, and spent 1649-50 at Thorn. He was then in Danzig, and in Sept. 1651 we find him in Hamburg. In the end of 1651 he returned to Thuringia, and bronght himself under the notice of Duke Wilhelm II. of Sachse-Weimar, the chief or president of the Fruit-bearing Society, the principal German literary union of the 17th century. The Duke, apparently in 1652, appointed him court poet, librarian and registrar of the administration at Weimar; and finally secretary of the Ducal Archives. In Sept. 1653 he was admitted as a member of the Fruit-bearing Society, of which he became secretary in 1656, and of which he wrote a history (Der Neu-Sprossende Teutsche Palmbaum, Nürnberg and Weimar, 1668); and, in 1679, became also a member of the Pegnitz Order. In 1681 he became blind, but was permitted to retain his emoluments till his death, at Weimar, July 18, 1681. [K. Goedeke's Grundriss, vol. iii., 1887, p. 74; Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. xxiii. 539; Weimarisches Jahrbuch, vol. iii., 1855, p. 176, &c. The dates given by the different authorities vary exceedingly, and are quite irreconcilable. In the registers at Schleusingen Neumark is last mentioned in 1636, and then as in the Third Form. Dr. von Bamberg, director of the Gymnasium at Gotha, informs me that Neumark's name appears in the matriculation book there under January 31, 1641; and as one of the "newly entered" scholars.] A long list of Neumark's poetical works is given by Goedeke. A large proportion of his secular poems are pastorals, or else occasional poems written to order at Weimar; and in all there is little freshness, or happiness in expression, or glow of feeling. As a musician, and as a hymn-writer, he is of more importance. His hymns appeared in his (1) Poetisch-und Musikalisches Lustwäldchen, Hamburg, 1652; the enlarged edition, entitled (2) Fortgepfiantzter Musikalizch-Poetischer Lustwald, Jena, 1657; and (3) Unterschiedliche, so wol gottseliger Andacht; als auch zu christlichen Tugenden aufmuntemde Lieder, Weimar, 1675. Of the 34 hymns in these three works a few are found in the German hymn-books of the 17th century, and three or four still survive. The best of Neumark's hymns are those of Trust in God, and patient waiting for His help under trial and suffering; and one of these may be fairly called classical and imperishable. It is:— Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten. Trust in God. First published in his Fortgepflantzter musikalisch-poetischer Lustwald, Jena, 1657, p. 26, in 7 stanzas of 6 lines, entitled “A hymn of consolation. That God will care for and preserve His own in His own time. After the saying 'Cast thy burden upon the Lord, and He shall sustain thee'“(Ps. lv. 22). This, his finest hymn, was written in 1641, at Kiel, when after unsuccessful attempts to procure employment he became a tutor in the family of the judge Stephan Henning. Of this appointment Neumark, in his Thrünendes Haus-Kreuiz, Weimar, 1681, speaks thus:-— "Which good fortune coming suddenly, and as if fallen from heaven, greatly rejoiced me, and on that very day I composed to the honour of my beloved Lord the here and there well-known hymn 'Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten'; and had certainly cause enough to thank the Divine compassion for such unlooked for grace shown to me," &c. As the date of its composition is thus December, 1641, or at latest Jan. 1642, it is certainly strange that it was not published in his Lustwäldchen, Hamburg, 1652. In that volume he does give, at p. 32, a piece entitled, "a hymn of consolation, when, in 1646, through a dreadful fire I came to my last farthing." The apocryphal story, according to which the hymn was written at Hamburg, about 1653 (see Miller's Singers and Songs, 1869, p. 91), has not been traced earlier than 1744. The hymn speedily became popular, and passed into hymn-books all over Germany (Leipzig Vorrath, 1673, No. 1169), and still holds its place as in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 73. Lauxmann, in Koch, viii. 386-390, relates that it was the favourite hymn of Magdalena Sibylla (d. 1687), wife of the Elector Johann Georg II. of Saxony; was sung, by his command, at the funeral, in 1740, of King Friedrich Wilhelm I. of Prussia; was sung, or rather played, by the first band of missionaries from Herrmannsburg as they set sail from Brunshausen on the Elbe (near Stade) on Oct. 28, 1853, &c. The beautiful melody by Neumark was probably composed in 1641 along with the hymn, and was published with it in 1657. On it J. S. Bach composed a cantata. It is well known in England through its use by Mendelssohn in his St. Paul ("To Thee, 0 Lord, I yield my spirit"), and from its introduction into Hymns Ancient & Modern (as Bremen), and many other collections. Translations in common use:-- 1. Who leaves th' Almighty God to reign. A full but free translation by Sir John Bowring in his Hymns, 1825, No. 58. His translations of stanzas ii., iv.-vi. beginning "How vain are sighs! how vain regret," are included in Curtis's Union Collection, 1827. 2. Who all his will to God resigneth. A good and full translation by A. T. Kussell, as No. 236 in his Psalms & Hymns, 1851. His translations of st. v.-vii. beginning "Say not, I am of God forsaken," are in Dr. Pagenstecher's Collection, 1864. 3. Leave God to order all thy ways. A full and good translation by Miss Winkworth, in her Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser. 1855, p. 152. This is given in full in M. W. Stryker's Christian Chorals, 1885, and, omitting st. vi., in W. F. Stevenson's Hymns for Church and Home, 1873, and the Baptist Hymnal, 1879. Further abridged forms are in the Baptist Psalms & Hymns, 1858; Harrow School Hymn Book, l866; Holy Song, 1869, and others. In the Pennsylvania Lutheran Church Book, 1868; and the American Presbyterian Hymnal, 1874, st. v., vi. are omitted, and the rest altered to 6 stanzas, beginning "My God, I leave to Thee my ways." 4. Him who the blessed God trusts ever. A good and full translation by Dr.John Ker in the Juvenile Missionary Magazine, of the United Presbyterian Church, 1857. It was revised, and st. iii., v., vi. omitted, for the Ibrox Hymnal, 1871, where it begins: "He who,” &c. 5. If thou but suffer God to guide thee. A full and good translation by Miss Winkworth (based on her Lyra Germanica version and set to the original melody), as No. 134 in her Chorale Book for England, 1863. Repeated in full in the Baptist Psalmist, 1878, and in America in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. It is found, in various abridged forms, in J. Robinson's Collection, 1869; Horder's Congregational Hymns , 1884; the Evangelical Hymnal, N. Y., 1880, and others. 6. He, who the living God hath chosen. A translation of st. i., ii., vii. by Miss Borthwick, as No. 237 in Dr. Pagenstecher's Collection, 1864. 7. He who doth glad submission render. A good translation omitting st. vi., by J. M. Sloan, as No. 284 in J. H. Wilson's Service of Praise, 1865, repeated, omitting the translations of st. ii., vii., in Flett's Collection, Paisley, 1871. Other translations are:— (1) "He that confides in his Creator." By J. C. Jacobi, 1720, p. 13 (1722, p. 36; 1732, p. 61). Repeated in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754, and later eds. (1886, No. 183). (2) "0 Christian! let the Lord direct." By Miss Knight in her Trs. from the German in Prose and Verse, 1812, p. 85. (3) "To let God rule who's but contented." By H. W. Dulcken in his Book of German Song, 1856, p. 274. (4) "He who the rule to God hath yielded." By J. D. Burns in the Family Treasury, 1859, p. 309, and his Memoir & Remains, 1869, p. 240. (5) "Who trusts in God's all-wise direction." By R. Massie, in the British Herald, Aug. 1865, p. 120, and Reid's Praise Book, 1872. (6) "Who yields his will to God's good pleasure. In the British Herald, April, 1866, p. 244, and in Reid's Praise Book, 1872. (7) "He who commits his way to God." In the Family Treasury, 1878, p. 49. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Frank Houghton

1894 - 1972 Person Name: Frank Houghton, 1894-1972 Meter: Author of "Thou Who Wast Rich beyond All Splendor" in Trinity Hymnal (Rev. ed.) Born: April 24, 1894, Stafford, Staffordshire, England. Died: January 25, 1972, Cornford House, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. Buried: Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. Son of Thomas Houghton, Curate of Stafford, Frank attended the University of London (BA 1913) London College of Divinity (now St. John’s College, Nottingham, graduated 1914). He was ordained a deacon in 1917, and priest the next year. He served as Curate of St. Benedict’s, Liverpool (1917-9); All Saints, Preston (1919-20). Inspired by missionary Hudson Taylor’s example, he joined the China Inland Mission, serving at Liangshan (1920-21) and Suiting (1921-24 ). In 1923, he married Dorothy Cassels, daughter of Bishop Cassels of West China. In 1924, he became principal of the Theological College in Paoning, Sichuan. He returned to England for medical reasons in 1928, expecting to stay only a short time, but he stayed to edit China’s Millions. He also served as Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of West China (1928-36). He went on to serve as Consecrated Bishop of East Szechwan at Nanchung (1934-40); General Director of the China Inland Mission (1940-51); Vicar of New Milverton, Leamington Spa (1953-60); and Rector of St. Peter, Drayton, Oxford (1960-63). Houghton retired in 1963, and he and his wife lived in Parkstone, Poole. © The Cyber Hymnal™ (

Carolina Sandell

1823 - 1903 Person Name: Carolina Sandell Berg, 1832-1903 Meter: Author of "The Numberless Gifts of God's mercies" in Evangelical Lutheran Worship Caroline W. Sandell Berg (b. Froderyd, Sweden, 1832; d. Stockholm, Sweden, 1903), is better known as Lina Sandell, the "Fanny Crosby of Sweden." "Lina" Wilhelmina Sandell Berg was the daughter of a Lutheran pastor to whom she was very close; she wrote hymns partly to cope with the fact that she witnessed his tragic death by drowning. Many of her 650 hymns were used in the revival services of Carl O. Rosenius, and a number of them gained popularity particularly because of the musical settings written by gospel singer Oskar Ahnfelt. Jenny Lind, the famous Swedish soprano, underwrote the cost of publishing a collection of Ahnfelt's music, Andeliga Sänger (1850), which consisted mainly of Berg's hymn texts. Bert Polman

Catherine Winkworth

1827 - 1878 Person Name: Catherine Winkworth, 1827-1878 Meter: Translator of "Baptized into Your Name Most Holy" in Christian Worship Catherine Winkworth (b. Holborn, London, England, 1827; d. Monnetier, Savoy, France, 1878) is well known for her English translations of German hymns; her translations were polished and yet remained close to the original. Educated initially by her mother, she lived with relatives in Dresden, Germany, in 1845, where she acquired her knowledge of German and interest in German hymnody. After residing near Manchester until 1862, she moved to Clifton, near Bristol. A pioneer in promoting women's rights, Winkworth put much of her energy into the encouragement of higher education for women. She translated a large number of German hymn texts from hymnals owned by a friend, Baron Bunsen. Though often altered, these translations continue to be used in many modern hymnals. Her work was published in two series of Lyra Germanica (1855, 1858) and in The Chorale Book for England (1863), which included the appropriate German tune with each text as provided by Sterndale Bennett and Otto Goldschmidt. Winkworth also translated biographies of German Christians who promoted ministries to the poor and sick and compiled a handbook of biographies of German hymn authors, Christian Singers of Germany (1869). Bert Polman ======================== Winkworth, Catherine, daughter of Henry Winkworth, of Alderley Edge, Cheshire, was born in London, Sep. 13, 1829. Most of her early life was spent in the neighbourhood of Manchester. Subsequently she removed with the family to Clifton, near Bristol. She died suddenly of heart disease, at Monnetier, in Savoy, in July, 1878. Miss Winkworth published:— Translations from the German of the Life of Pastor Fliedner, the Founder of the Sisterhood of Protestant Deaconesses at Kaiserworth, 1861; and of the Life of Amelia Sieveking, 1863. Her sympathy with practical efforts for the benefit of women, and with a pure devotional life, as seen in these translations, received from her the most practical illustration possible in the deep and active interest which she took in educational work in connection with the Clifton Association for the Higher Education of Women, and kindred societies there and elsewhere. Our interest, however, is mainly centred in her hymnological work as embodied in her:— (1) Lyra Germanica, 1st Ser., 1855. (2) Lyra Germanica, 2nd Ser., 1858. (3) The Chorale Book for England (containing translations from the German, together with music), 1863; and (4) her charming biographical work, the Christian Singers of Germany, 1869. In a sympathetic article on Miss Winkworth in the Inquirer of July 20, 1878, Dr. Martineau says:— "The translations contained in these volumes are invariably faithful, and for the most part both terse and delicate; and an admirable art is applied to the management of complex and difficult versification. They have not quite the fire of John Wesley's versions of Moravian hymns, or the wonderful fusion and reproduction of thought which may be found in Coleridge. But if less flowing they are more conscientious than either, and attain a result as poetical as severe exactitude admits, being only a little short of ‘native music'" Dr. Percival, then Principal of Clifton College, also wrote concerning her (in the Bristol Times and Mirror), in July, 1878:— "She was a person of remarkable intellectual and social gifts, and very unusual attainments; but what specially distinguished her was her combination of rare ability and great knowledge with a certain tender and sympathetic refinement which constitutes the special charm of the true womanly character." Dr. Martineau (as above) says her religious life afforded "a happy example of the piety which the Church of England discipline may implant.....The fast hold she retained of her discipleship of Christ was no example of ‘feminine simplicity,' carrying on the childish mind into maturer years, but the clear allegiance of a firm mind, familiar with the pretensions of non-Christian schools, well able to test them, and undiverted by them from her first love." Miss Winkworth, although not the earliest of modern translators from the German into English, is certainly the foremost in rank and popularity. Her translations are the most widely used of any from that language, and have had more to do with the modern revival of the English use of German hymns than the versions of any other writer. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================ See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen

1670 - 1739 Person Name: Johann A. Freylingshausen, 1670-1739 Meter: Composer of "WIE GROSS IST DES ALLMÄCHTIGEN GÜTE" in The Christian Hymnary. Bks. 1-4 Freylinghausen, Johann Anastasius, son of Dietrich Freylinghausen, merchant and burgomaster at Gandersheim, Brunswick, was born at Gandersheim, Dec. 2, 1670. He entered the University of Jena at Easter, 1689. Attracted by the preaching of A. H. Francke and J. J. Breithaupt, he removed to Erfurt in 1691, and at Easter, 1692, followed them to Halle. About the end of 1693 he returned to Gandersheim, and employed himself as a private tutor. In 1695 he went to Glaucha as assistant to Francke; and when Francke became pastor of St. Ulrich's, in Halle,1715, Freylinghausen became his colleague, and in the same year married his only daughter. In 1723 he became also sub-director of the Paedagogium and the Orphanage; and after Francke's death in 1727, succeeded him as pastor of St. Ulrich's and director of the Francke Institutions. Under his fostering care these Institutions attained their highest development. From a stroke of paralysis in 1728, and a second in 1730, he recovered in great measure, but a third in 1737 crippled his right side, while the last, in Nov., 1738, left him almost helpless. He died on Feb. 12, 1739, and was buried beside Francke (Koch, vi. 322-334; Allgemine Deutsche Biographie, vii. 370-71; Bode, pp. 69-70; Grote's Introduction, &c.) Almost all Freylinghausen's hymns appeared in his own hymnbook, which was the standard collection of the Halle school, uniting the best productions of Pietism with a good representation of the older "classical" hymns. This work, which greatly influenced later collections, and was the source from which many editors drew not only the hymns of Pietism, but also the current forms of the earlier hymns (as well as the new "Halle" melodies, a number of which are ascribed to Freylinghausen himself) appeared in two parts, viz.:— i. Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, den Kern alter und neuer sich haltend &c, Halle. Gedrucktund verlegt im Waysen-Hause, 1704 [Hamburg], with 683 hymns and 173 melodies. To the second edition, 1705 [Rostock University], an Appendix was added with Hymns 684-758, and 21 melodies. Editions 3-18 are practically the same so far as the hymns are concerned, save that in ed. 11, 1719 [Berlin], and later issues, four hymns, written by J. J. Rambach at Freylinghausen's request, replaced four of those in eds. 1-10. ii. Neues Geistreiches Gesangbuch,&c, Halle . . . 1714 [Berlin], with 815 hymns and 154 melodies. In the 2nd edition, 1719 [Rostock University], Hymns 816-818, with one melody, were added. In 1741 these two parts were combined by G. A. Francke, seven hymns being added, all but one taken from the first edition, 1718, of the so-called Auszug, which was compiled for congregational use mainly from the original two parts: and this reached a second, and last, edition in 1771. So far as the melodies are concerned, the edition of 1771 is the most complete, containing some 600 to 1582 hymns. (Further details of these editions in the Blätter für Hymnologie, 1883, pp. 44-46, 106-109; 1885, pp. 13-14.) A little volume of notes on the hymns and hymnwriters of the 1771 edition, compiled by J. H. Grischow and completed by J. G. Kirchner, and occasionally referred to in these pages, appeared as Kurzgefasste Nachricht von ältern und ncuern Liederverfassern at Halle, 1771. As a hymnwriter Freylinghausen ranks not only as the best of the Pietistic school, but as the first among his contemporaries. His finest productions are distinguished by a sound and robust piety, warmth of feeling depth of Christian experience, scripturalness, clearness and variety of style, which gained for them wide acceptance, and have kept them still in popular use. A complete edition of his 44 hymns, with a biographical introduction by Ludwig Grote, appeared as his Geistliche Lieder, at Halle, 1855. A number of them, including No. v., are said to have been written during severe attacks of toothache. Two (“Auf, auf, weil der Tag erschienen"; "Der Tag ist hin") are noted under their own first lines. i. Hymns in English common use: -- i. Monarche aller Ding. God's Majesty. 1714, as above, No. 139, in 11 stanzas of 6 lines, repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 88, and as No. 38 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. A fine hymn of Praise, on the majesty and love of God. Translated as:— Monarch of all, with lowly fear, by J. Wesley, in Hymns & Sacred Poems, 1739 (P. Works, 1868-1872, vol. i. p. 104), in 8 stanzas of 4 lines, from st. i., ii., v.-vii., ix.-xi. Repeated in full in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754, pt. i., No. 456 (1886, No. 176); and in J. A. Latrobe's Collection, 1841. The following forms of this translation are also in common use:-- (1) To Thee, 0 Lord, with humble fear, being Wesley's st. i., iii.-v., vii., viii. altered as No. 156 in Dr. Martineau's Hymns for Christian Church & Home, 1840, and repeated in Miss Courtauld's Psalms, Hymns & Anthems, 1860, and in America in the Cheshire Association Unitarian Collection, 1844. (2) Thou, Lord, of all the parent art, Wesley's, st. iii.-v., vii. altered in the College Hymnal, N. Y., 1876. (3) Thou, Lord, art Light; Thy native ray, Wesley's st. iv., v., vii., in Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. ii. 0 reines Wesen, lautre Quelle. Penitence. Founded on Psalm li. 12, 1714, as above, No. 321, in 7 stanzas of 8 lines, repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 41, and in Bunsen's Versuch, 1833, No. 777 (ed. 1881, No. 435). The only translation in common use is:— Pure Essence: Spotless Fount of Light. A good and full translation by Miss Winkworth in the first series of her Lyra Germanica, 1855, p. 43, and in her Chorale Book for England, 1863, No. 113. iii. Wer ist wohl wie du. Names and offices of Christ. One of his noblest and most beautiful hymns, a mirror of his inner life, and one of the finest of the German "Jesus Hymns." 1704, as above, No. 66, in 14 st. of 6 l., repeated in Grote, 1855, p. 33, and is No. 96 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. The translations in common use are: 1. 0 Jesu, source of calm repose, by J. Wesley, being a free translation of st. i., iii., v., viii., xiii. First published in his Psalms & Hymns, Charlestown, 1737 (Poetical Works, 1868-1872, vol. i. p. 161). Repeated in full as No. 462 in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754. In the 1826 and later editions (1886, No. 233) it begins, "Jesus, Thou source." The original form was included as No. 49 in the Wesley Hymns & Spiritual Songs , 1753, and, as No. 343, in the Wesley Hymnbook, 1780 (1875, No. 353). Varying centos under the original first line are found in Mercer's Church Psalter & Hymn Book, 1855-1864; Kennedy , 1863; Irish Church Hymnal, 1869-1873; J. L. Porter's Collection, 1876, &c. It has also furnished the following centos:— (1) Messiah! Lord! rejoicing still, being Wesley's st. iv.-vi. altered in Dr. Martineau's Collection of Hymns for Christian Worship, 1840. (2) Lord over all, sent to fulfil, Wesley's st. iv., iii., v., vi. in the American Methodist Episcopal Hymnbook, 1849. 2. Who is like Thee, Who? a translation of st. i., ii., v., vii., x., xiii., as No. 687, in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymnbook, 1754. Translations of st. xi., xiv. were added in 1789, and the first line altered in 1801(1886, No. 234), to "Jesus, who with Thee." The translations of st. i., ii., x., xiv., from the 1801, altered and beginning, "Jesus, who can be," are included in America in the Dutch Reformed Hymns of the Church, 1869; Hymns & Songs of Praise, N. Y., 1874; and Richards's Collection, N.Y., 1881. 3. Who is there like Thee, a good translation of st. i., ii., viii., xiv., by J. S. Stallybrass, as No. 234 in Curwen's Sabbath Hymnbook, 1859, repeated in the Irish Church Hymnal, 1873, and in W. F. Stevenson's Hymns for Church & Home, 1873. 4. Who is, Jesus blest, a translation of stanzas i., ii., v., vi., xii., xiv., by M. Loy, in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal, 1880. 5. Who, as Thou, makes blest, a good translation, omitting st. vii., ix., x., contributed by Dr. F. W Gotch to the Baptist Magazine, 1857. Repeated in the 1880 Supplement to the Baptist Psalms & Hymns, 1858. The translations not in common use are: — (1) "Whither shall we flee," by Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 55. (2) "Who has worth like Thine," in the U. P. Juvenile Miss. Magazine, 1857, p. 217. (3) "Thou art First and Best," by Miss Winkworth, 1869, p. 267. ii. Hymns translated into English but not in common use:— iv. Herr und Gott der Tag und Nächte. Evening. 1705, as above, No. 755, in 6 stanzas, Grote, p. 105. Translated by H. J. Buckoll, 1842, p. 106, beginning with stanza. ii. v. Mein Herz, gieb dioh rufrieden. Cross and Consolation. First in the Halle Stadt Gesangbuch, 1711, No. 503, in 11 stanzas; repeated 1714, No. 450, and in Grote, p. 71. Translated by Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 86. vi. 0 Lamm, das keine Sünde je beflecket. Passiontide. 1714, No. 85, in 19 stanzas, Grote, p. 14. Translated as, (1) "Lamb, for Thy boundless love I praises offer," of st. xii. as stanza i. of No. 1023 in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1849, No. 121). (2) "O Lamb, whom never spot of sin defiled," in the British Magazine, June, 1838, p. 625. vii. 0 Lamm, das meine Sündenlast getragen. Easter Eve. 1714, No. 95, in 8 stanzas; Grote, p. 23. Translated as "Christ Jesus is that precious grain," a translation of st. v. by F. W. Foster, as No. 71 in the Moravian Hymnbook, 1789 (1886, No. 921). viii. Zu dir, Herr Jesu, komme ich. Penitence. Founded on St. Matthew xi. 28-30. 1714, as above, No. 306, in 4 stanzas; Grote, p. 39. Translated by Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 80). [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

Timothy Dudley-Smith

b. 1926 Meter: Author of "Who is there on this Easter morning" in Voices United Timothy Dudley-Smith (b. 1926) Educated at Pembroke College and Ridley Hall, Cambridge, Dudley-Smith has served the Church of England since his ordination in 1950. He has occupied a number of church posi­tions, including parish priest in the diocese of Southwark (1953-1962), archdeacon of Norwich (1973-1981), and bishop of Thetford, Norfolk, from 1981 until his retirement in 1992. He also edited a Christian magazine, Crusade, which was founded after Billy Graham's 1955 London crusade. Dudley-Smith began writing comic verse while a student at Cambridge; he did not begin to write hymns until the 1960s. Many of his several hundred hymn texts have been collected in Lift Every Heart: Collected Hymns 1961-1983 (1984), Songs of Deliverance: Thirty-six New Hymns (1988), and A Voice of Singing (1993). The writer of Christian Literature and the Church (1963), Someone Who Beckons (1978), and Praying with the English Hymn Writers (1989), Dudley-Smith has also served on various editorial committees, including the committee that published Psalm Praise (1973). Bert Polman

N. F. S. Grundtvig

1783 - 1872 Meter: Author of "O day full of grace, which we behold" in The Lutheran Hymnary Nicolai Frederik Severin Grundtvig was the son of a pastor, and was born at Udby, in Seeland, in 1783. He studied in the University of Copenhagen from 1800-1805; and, like some other eminent men, did not greatly distinguish himself; his mind was too active and his imagination too versatile to bear the restraint of the academic course. After leaving the university he took to teaching; first in Langeland, then (1808) in Copenhagen. Here he devoted his attention to poetry, literature, and Northern antiquities. In 1810 he became assistant to his father in a parish in Jutland. The sermon he preached at his ordination, on the subject "Why has the Lord's word disappeared from His house," attracted much attention, which is rarely the case with "probationers'" sermons. On his father's death, in 1813, he returned to Copenhagen, and for eight years devoted himself mainly to literature. The poetry, both secular and religious, that he produced, drew from a friend the remark that "Kingo's harp had been strung afresh." In 1821 King Frederik vi. appointed him pastor of Prasloe, a parish in Seeland, from which he was the next year removed to Copenhagen, and made chaplain of St. Saviour's church in Christianshavn. From the time of his ordination he had been deeply impressed with Evangelical church sentiments, in opposition to the fashionable Rationalism and Erastianism of the day; and adhered to the anti-rationalist teaching of Hauge, whose death at this time (1824) seemed to be a call to Grundtvig to lift up his voice. An opportunity soon presented itself; Professor Clausen brought out a book entitled Katholicismens og Protestantismens Forfatning, Ldre, og Ritus ("The condition, teaching, and ritual of Catholicism and Protestantism"). This book was replete with the Erastian Rationalism which was so especially distasteful to Grundtvig, who forthwith, in his Kirkens Gjenmsele ("The Church's Reply," 1825), strongly opposed its teaching, and laid down truer principles of Christian belief, and sounder views of the nature of the Church. This caused a sensation: Grandtvig (who had not spared his opponent) was fined 100 rixdollars, and the songs and hymns which he had written for the coming celebration of the tenth centenary of Northern Christianity were forbidden to be used. On this he resigned his post at St. Saviour's, or rather was forced to quit it by a sentence of suspension which was pronounced in 1826, and under which he was kept for 13 years. He took the opportunity of visiting England in 1829, 30, and 31, and consulting its libraries, mainly with a view to a further insight into Northern antiquities, and to help his studies in the early English tongue. His edition of Cynewulfs beautiful poem of the Phenix from the Codex Exoniensis, the Anglo-Saxon (so-called) text, with a preface in Danish, and a fri Fordanskning (free rendering in Danish), published in 1840*, is a result of this journey and enforced leisure. Tired of his long silence, his numerous friends and admirers proposed to erect a church for him, and form themselves into an independent congregation, but this was not permitted. He was allowed, however, to hold an afternoon service in the German church at Christianshavn. There ho preached for eight years, and compiled and wrote his hymn-book, Sang-Vdrk til den Danske Kirkce ("Song-work for the Danish Church"). He still worked on towards his object of raising the Christian body to which ho belonged from the condition of a mere slate establishment to the dignity of a gospel-teaching national church. In 1839 (the year of the death of King Frederik vr., and the accession of his cousin Chrisliem vni.) the suspension was removed, and he was appointed chaplain of the hospital Vartou, a position which he held till his death. In 1863 the king (Frederik vn.) conferred on him the honorary title of bishop. The good old man died suddenly, in his 89th year, on Sept. 2, 1872, having officiated the day before. As Kingo is the poet of Easter, and Brorson of Christmas, so Grundtvig is spoken of as the poet of Whitsuntide. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology,, p. 1001 (1907)


Person Name: Anon. Meter: Author of "O day full of grace, which we behold" in The Lutheran Hymnary In some hymnals, the editors noted that a hymn's author is unknown to them, and so this artificial "person" entry is used to reflect that fact. Obviously, the hymns attributed to "Author Unknown" "Unknown" or "Anonymous" could have been written by many people over a span of many centuries.

Stephen P. Starke

b. 1955 Person Name: S. P. Starke, b. 1955 Meter: Author of "Sing Praise to the God of Israel" in Evangelical Lutheran Hymnary Rev. Stephen P. Starke has always had a heart for hymns. At a young age, Starke played hymns out of The Lutheran Hymnal and read through the hymnal to pass the time before Sunday services. Pastor Starke graduated from Concordia University Chicago with a BA. While completing his MDiv from Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne, Indiana, he attempted his first hymn text and was encouraged to write more. Since that time, he has written more than 175 hymns inspired by music and the Scriptures. He has been commissioned to write hymns for special occasions, including the 125th anniversary of Concordia University Wisconsin, as well as his daughter’s wedding. Because of his extensive work as a hymnwriter, Pastor Starke received an honorary doctor of letters degree from Concordia University, Irvine, California, and an honorary doctor of divinity degree from Concordia University Wisconsin in Mequon. It is through the medium of hymns that Pastor Starke desires to preserve and pass on the truths of the Gospel for generations to come.

J. J. Rambach

1693 - 1735 Person Name: Johann J. Rambach, 1693-1735 Meter: Author of "Baptized into Your Name Most Holy" in Christian Worship Rambach, Johann Jakob, D.D., son of Hans Jakob Rambach, cabinet maker at Halle on the Saale, was born at Halle, Feb. 24, 1693. In 1706 he left school and entered his father's workshop, but, in the autumn of 1707, he dislocated his ankle. During his illness he turned again to his schoolbooks; the desire for learning reawoke; and on his recovery, early in 1708, he entered the Latin school of the Orphanage at Halle (Glaucha). On Oct. 27, 1712, he matriculated at the University of Halle as a student of medicine, but soon turned his attention to theology. He became specially interested in the study of the Old Testament under J. H. Michaelis. In May 1715 he became one of Michaelis's assistants in preparing his edition of the Hebrew Bible, for which he wrote the commentary on Ruth, Esther, Nehemiah, &c. His health began to suffer in the spring of 1719, and he gladly accepted the invitation of Count von Heukel to stay at Polzig, near Ronneburg, where he spent several months. By August he had quite recovered, and went to pay a visit to Jena, where a number of the students asked him to lecture to them. For this purpose he settled at Jena in Oct., 1719, and lived in the house of Professor Buddeus (J. F. Budde). He graduated M.A. in March 1720. In 1723 he was appointed adjunct of the Theological Faculty at Halle, as also inspector of the Orphanage; in 1726 extraordinary professor of theology; and in 1727, after A. H. Francke's death, ordinary professor as well as preacher at the Schulkirche. Here he was very popular, both as preacher and professor, but the jealousy of his colleagues induced him to accept an offer from the Landgrave Ernst Ludwig of Hesse, who, in 1731, invited him to Giessen as superintendent and first professor of theology (before leaving Halle he graduated D.D., June 28, 1731), and in Aug., 1732, appointed him also director of the Paedagogium at Giessen. In 1734 he was, for various reasons, greatly inclined to accept the offer of the first professorship of theology in the newly-founded University of Göttingen, but eventually, at the earnest request of the Landgrave, remained in Giessen, where he died of fever, April 19, 1735 (Die Familie Rambach. By Dr. T. Hansen, Gotha, 1875: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, xxvii. 196; Blätter fur Hymnologie, 1883, pp. 113, 129, 145, 163, 186; 1884, p. 20; 1885, p. 13, &c.) Rambach was a voluminous author in various departments of practical theology, e.g. his Institutiones hermeneuticae sacrae, Jena, 1724, which passed through four editions in his lifetime; hisErbauliches Handbüchlein fur Kinder, 1734 (see below), which reached an eighth edition in 1736, and a 14th in 1766; his various volumes of sermons, &c. He justly earned his popularity by the thoroughness of his researches, and the clear and concise way in which he set forth the results of his investigations. It is however as a hymnwriter that his name is likely to be best known. While not entitled to rank with the best hymn-writers of the 16th and 17th centuries, he yet takes a high place among his contemporaries, and deserves to be remembered as much as almost any of the 18th cent, hymnwriters. His style is good and dignified; his thought is profound yet clearly expressed. While his hymns are often sufficiently didactic, they are generally scriptural and churchly in tone, and are characterised by lyric force, lively imagination, and earnest, sober piety. Of hymns, in the strict sense, he wrote over 180, a large number of which passed into the German hymn-books of the 18th cent. (e.g. the Hannover Gesang-Buch, 1740, and Lüneburg Gesang-Buch, 1767, contains 52 by him), and a good many are still found in modern hymn-books. Of these Dr. J. L. Pasig gives 165 in his edition of Rambach's Geistliche Lieder, Leipzig, 1844, and the rest are printed by Hansen as above, while the first lines of the whole are given in the Blätter as above. Four are recasts (practically originals), made for the 11th edition, 1719, of Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, to replace similar hymns in the ed. of 1705. The rest principally appeared in the following works by Rambach, viz.: (1) Geistliche Poesien, Halle. 1720 [British Museum] The first part contains 72 cantatas on the Gospels for Sundays and festivals; the second part includes 20 hymns, mostly written at Polzig in 1719. (2) Poetische Fest-Gedancken. Jena and Leipzig, 1723 [Royal Library, Berlin]. Included are 15 pieces which may be called hymns. The second edition of 1727 [Brit. Mus.] has 28 new hymns; and the 3rd ed., 1729 [Gottingen Library], has 22 more. (3) Erbauliches Handbuchlein für Kinder, Giessen, 1734 [Hamburg Library]. The 3rd part contains 8 new hymns. (4) Geistreiches Haus-Gesang-Buch, Frankfurt and Leipzig, 1735 [Hamburg Library], with a preface dated April 10, 1735. This contains 112 hymns by Rambach, of which 58 are practically new, 11 of these, however, being recasts of his own earlier hymns. (5) Wander der bis zum Tode des Kreutzes erniedrigten Liebe, Giessen, 1750 [Berlin Library]. This includes 27 new hymns. Rambach's hymns …which have passed into English are:— i. Auf! Seele, schicke dich. Holy Communion. Written, by request for the eleventh edition, 1719, of Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, 1704, as No. 229, in 16 stanzas of 6 lines in order to replace the hymn "Auf, Seele, sey gerüst." This hymn, by George Heine, was included in the Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, Halle, 1697, p. 433. In the second ed., 1771, of the complete book formed by the fusion of pt. i., 1704, and its supplement of 1705 with pt. ii., 1714, of Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, both hymns are given, Heine's as No. 524, and Rambach's as No. 522, both marked as being No. 229 in pt. i., 1704. Rambach's hymn is in his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 369; the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 471, &c. In Pasig's edition of his Geistliche Lieder, 1844, p. 112, entitled "Before the reception of Holy Communion." It has been translated as:— My soul prepare to meet. Omitting st. i., 11. 4-6 ; ii., 11. 4-6; vii., xiv., as No. 570 in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1849, No. 966). In the edition of 1886, No. 979 begins with st. iv., "How should I, slaughtered Lamb"; and No. 1012 with st. xi., "Lord, of Thy wondrous love." ii. Mein Jesu, der du vor dem Scheiden. Holy Communion. Appeared in Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, 11th ed., 1719, as No. 238, in 9 st. of 6 1. It was written to replace the hymn "Mein Jesn, hier sind deine Brüder" (Geistreiches Gesang-Buch, Halle, 1697, p. 363), in the first edition of Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch. It is in his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 365; the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 1601; and in Pasig, 1844, p. 110, entitled, "On the treasures of Grace in Holy Communion." The translations are:— 1. Lord Jesus, Who before Thy passion. Omitting st. ix., this is No. 1181 in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian Hymn Book, 1801 (1886, No. 963). 2. 0 Lord, Who on that last sad eve. A good translation omitting st. ix., by Miss Cox, contributed to Lyra Eucharistica, 1863, p. 15, and repeated in her Hymns from the German, 1864, p. 75. Included, omitting st. iii., in G. S. Jellicoe's Collection, 1867. iii. 0 Lehrer, dem kein Andrer gleich. Christ our Prophet. In his Haus Gesang-Buch1735, No. 107, in 8 st. of 6 1., entitled, "On the prophetical office of Jesus Christ." Repeated in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 118, and in Pasig, 1844, p. 51. Translated as:— Surely none like Thee can teach. By Miss Fry, in 102 lines, in her Hymns of the Reformation,1845, p. 126. A recast in 3 st. of 8 1., beginning, "Saviour, none like Thee can teach," was included in J. Whittemore's Supplement to all Hymn Books, 1860, No. 263, and repeated in the Methodist New Congregational Hymn Book, 1863, No. 62. iv. Wie herrlich ists ein Schäflein Christi werden. Joy in Believing. In his Poetiche Fest-Gedancken, 2nd ed. 1727, p. 131, in 6 st. of 6 l., entitled, "The Blessedness of the Sheep of Christ. John x. 28, ‘I give my sheep eternal life.'" In his Haus Gesang-Buch 1735, No. 325; the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863, No. 645; and Pasig, 1844, p. 139. Translated as:— How great the bliss to be a sheep of Jesus. A translation of st. i., ii., v., by C. J. Latrobe, as No. 293, in the Moravian Hymn Book, 1789 (1886, No. 385). Hymns not in English common use:— v. Allwissender, vollkommner Geist. The Omniscient One. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 12, in 6 stanzas; the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863; and in Pasig, p. 8. Translated as, "Thou Spirit, perfect and allwise." By Dr. H. Mills, 1856, p. 11. vi. Frommes Lamm, von was für Hunden. Passiontide. In his Poetische Fest-Gedancken, 2nd ed., 1727, p. 49, in 8 st. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 151, it begins, "Frommes Lamm, durch dessen Wunden." Also in Pasig, p. 67. Translated as, "Great Thy sorrows, injur'd Jesus." By Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 297). vii. Gesetz und Evangelium, Law and Gospel. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 356, in 10 st.; the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863; and Pasig, p. 105. Translated as, "The holy law and gospel, both." By Dr. II. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 27.) viii. Herr, du hast nach dem Fall. Before Work. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 565, in 4 st.; and Pasig, p. 150. In the Berlin Gesang-Buch, 1765, No. 206, it is altered (probably by J. S. Diterich), and begins "Du hast uns, Heir die Pflicht." This is translated as, “Lord, Thou hast bid us labour, bid us toil." By Miss Warner, 1858, p. 230. ix. Hier bin ich Herr, du rufest mir. Christian Work. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 269, in 6 st.; the Württemberg Gesang-Buch, 1842, No. 306; and Pasig, p. 119. The translations are (1) "Here am I, Lord, Thou callest me, Thou drawest me." By Miss Warner, 1858, p. 209. (2) "Here am I, Lord, Thou callest me, Thou drawest and." By Mrs. Findlater, in Hymns from the Land of Luther, 4th series, 1862. x. Höchste Vollkommenheit, reineste Sonne. God's Majesty . Written for the 11th ed., 1719, of Freylinghausen's Gesang-Buch, No. 170 (in 20 st.), to replace an anonymous hymn in the first edition, 1704, which began "Höchste Vollkommenheit, alles in Einem." In his Haus Gesang-Buch 1735, No. 8, Rambach reduced it to 12 st., and rewrote it to an easier metre, so as to begin "Höchstes Wesen, reinste Sonne." Both forms are in Pasig, pp. 3-6. Translated as "If Heav'ns and Earths there were innumerable," a tr. of st. iii., viii., xi., xv., xvii., xix., xx., as No. 672, in pt. i. of the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754. xi. O grosser Geist, dess Wesen Alles füllet. The Omnipresent One. In his Geistliche Poesien, 1720, p. 330, in 9 st.; his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 13; the Württemberg Gesang-Buch, 1842, No. 44 ; and Pasig, p. 7. Translated as, “Eternal God, Thy dwelling-place." By Dr. G. Walker, 1860, p. 73. xii. 0 grosser Geist! O Ursprung aller Dinge. God's Holiness. In his Geistliche Poesien, 1729, p. 327, in 9 st.; his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 19; and Pasig, p. 15. Translated as, "O mighty Spirit! Source whence all things sprung." By Miss Winkworth, 1858, p. 153. xiii. Verklärte Majestät, anbetungs-würdigst Wesen. God's Majesty. Founded on 1 Tim. vi. 15, 16. In his Geistliche Poesien, 1720, p. 303, in 11 st.; his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 7; and Pasig, p. 2. The form translation is "Anbetungswürdger Gott," a recast (probablv by J. S. Diterich), which is No. l in the Berlin Gesang-Buch 1765, and No. 5 in the Berlin Geistliche Lieder, ed. 1863. Translated as, "Dread Majesty above." By Dr. H. Mills, 1845 (1856, p. 8). xiv. Wirf, blöder Sinn, den Kummer hin. Christmas. In his Haus Gesang-Buch, 1735, No. 129, in 6 st. (founded on Rom. viii. 31, 32). In Pasig, p. 6, and the Unverfälschter Liedersegen 1851, No. 60. Translated as, "Throw, soul, I say, thy fears away." By Miss Manington, 1864, p. 28. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907


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