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William Henry Monk

1823 - 1889 Person Name: W. H. Monk Harmonizer of "ST. ANNE (Croft)" in The United Methodist Hymnal William H. Monk (b. Brompton, London, England, 1823; d. London, 1889) is best known for his music editing of Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861, 1868; 1875, and 1889 editions). He also adapted music from plainsong and added accompaniments for Introits for Use Throughout the Year, a book issued with that famous hymnal. Beginning in his teenage years, Monk held a number of musical positions. He became choirmaster at King's College in London in 1847 and was organist and choirmaster at St. Matthias, Stoke Newington, from 1852 to 1889, where he was influenced by the Oxford Movement. At St. Matthias, Monk also began daily choral services with the choir leading the congregation in music chosen according to the church year, including psalms chanted to plainsong. He composed over fifty hymn tunes and edited The Scottish Hymnal (1872 edition) and Wordsworth's Hymns for the Holy Year (1862) as well as the periodical Parish Choir (1840-1851). Bert Polman

Anne Steele

1717 - 1778 Author of "The gospel, O what endless charms" in The Evangelical Hymnal Anne Steele was the daughter of Particular Baptist preacher and timber merchant William Steele. She spent her entire life in Broughton, Hampshire, near the southern coast of England, and devoted much of her time to writing. Some accounts of her life portray her as a lonely, melancholy invalid, but a revival of research in the last decade indicates that she had been more active and social than what was previously thought. She was theologically conversant with Dissenting ministers and "found herself at the centre of a literary circle that included family members from various generations, as well as local literati." She chose a life of singleness to focus on her craft. Before Christmas in 1742, she declined a marriage proposal from contemporary minister-hymnist Benjamin Beddome. All the same, some of Steele's sufferings were very real. She lost her mother at age 3, a potential suitor at age 20, her step mom at 43, and her sister-in-law at 45. She spent many years caring for her father until his death in 1769. For most of her life, she exhibited symptoms of malaria, including persistent pain, fever, headaches, and stomach aches. Caleb Evans, in his preface to Steele's posthumous Miscellaneous Pieces in Verse and Prose (1780), noted that she had been bed ridden for "some years" before her death: When the interesting hour came, she welcomed its arrival, and though her feeble body was excruciated with pain, her mind was perfectly serene. . . . She took the most affectionate leave of her weeping friends around her, and at length, the happy moment of her dismission arising, she closed her eyes, and with these animating words on her dying lips, "I know that my Redeemer liveth," gently fell asleep in Jesus. Historically, her most popular hymn has been "When I survey life's varied scene" (and its shortened form, "Father, whate'er of earthly bliss"), a hymn that turns earthly loss or denial into a spirit of thankfulness, published in over 800 North American hymnals since 1792. Not all of her work deals with personal agony. Her hymns span a wide doctrinal and ecclesiastical range, some crafted and used for her father's congregation. Her metrical psalms are among the finest of the genre. Steele's hymns and psalms were published in two volumes in 1760, Poems on Subjects Chiefly Devotional, under the pseudonym Theodosia, with an additional volume of material published after her death, in Miscellaneous Pieces in Verse and Prose, 1780. Sixty two of her hymns, including new material and some revisions by Steele, were published in a hymnal for Baptists in 1769, A Collection of Hymns Adapted to Public Worship, edited by Caleb Evans and John Ash. Forty seven were included in John Rippon's A Selection of Hymns from the Best Authors in 1787; the only author with larger representation was Philip Doddridge, with 101. These collections represent the earliest attempts to anthologize Baptist hymns and were vital for bringing Steele's hymns into wider public worship, where they have been a mainstay for over two hundred years. Chris Fenner adapted from The Towers (Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, August 2015) Recommended Bibliography: Cynthia Y. Aalders, To Express the Ineffable: The Hymns and Spirituality of Anne Steele (Milton Keynes, U.K.: Paternoster, 2008). Cynthia Y. Aalders, "In melting grief and ardent love: Anne Steele's contribution to eighteenth-century hymnody," The Hymn (summer 2009), 16-25. J.R. Broome, A Bruised Reed: The Life and Times of Anne Steele (Harpenden, U.K.: Gospel Standard Trust Publications, 2007). Joseph Carmichael, The Hymns of Anne Steele in John Rippon's Selection of Hymns: A Theological Analysis in the Context of the English Particular Baptist Revival (2012), dissertation, http://digital.library.sbts.edu/handle/10392/4112 Priscilla Wong, Anne Steele and Her Spiritual Vision (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2012) ======================== Steele, Anne, born in 1716, was the daughter of Mr. Wm. Steele, a timber merchant, and pastor, without salary, of the Baptist Church at Broughton, in Hampshire. At an early age she showed a taste for literature, and would often entertain her friends by her poetical compositions. But it was not until 1760 that she could be prevailed upon to publish. In that year two volumes appeared under the title of Poems on Subjects chiefly Devotional, by Theodosia. After her death, which occurred in November, 1778, a new edition was published with an additional volume and a Preface by the Rev. Dr. Caleb Evans, of Bristol (Bristol, 1780). In the three volumes are 144 hymns, 34 Psalms in verse, and about 30 short poems. They have been reprinted in one vol. by D. Sedgwick, 1863…. Among Baptist hymnwriters Miss Steele stands at the head, if we regard either the number of her hymns which have found a place in the hymnals of the last 120 years, or the frequency with which they have been sung. Although few of them can be placed in the first rank of lyrical compositions, they are almost uniformly simple in language, natural and pleasing in imagery, and full of genuine Christian feeling. Miss Steele may not inappropriately be compared with Miss F. R. Havergal, our "Theodosia" of the 19th century. In both there is the same evangelic fervour, in both the same intense personal devotion to the Lord Jesus. But whilst Miss Steele seems to think of Him more frequently as her "bleeding, dying Lord "—dwelling on His sufferings in their physical aspect—Miss Havergal oftener refers to His living help and sympathy, recognizes with gladness His present claims as "Master" and "King," and anticipates almost with ecstasy His second coming. Looking at the whole of Miss Steele's hymns, we find in them a wider range of thought than in Miss Havergal's compositions. She treats of a greater variety of subjects. On the other hand, Miss Havergal, living in this age of missions and general philanthropy, has much more to say concerning Christian work and personal service for Christ and for humanity. Miss Steele suffered from delicacy of health and from a great sorrow, which befell her in the death of her betrothed under peculiarly painful circumstances. In other respects her life was uneventful, and occupied chiefly in the discharge of such domestic and social duties as usually fall to the lot of the eldest daughter of a village pastor. She was buried in Broughton churchyard. [Rev W. R. Stevenson, M.A.] A large number of Miss Steele's hymns are in common use, the larger proportion being in American hymnbooks. In addition to "Almighty Maker of my frame," “Far from these narrow scenes of night," "Father of mercies in Thy word," and others annotated under their respective first lines, there are also:— i. From her Poems on Subjects Chiefly Devotional, 1760, vols. i., ii. 1. Come, let our souls adore the Lord. Pleading for Mercy. One of two hymns "On the Fast, Feb. 11, 1757," the first being "While justice waves her vengeful hand." 2. Come, tune ye saints, your noblest strains. Christ Dying and Rising. 3. Deep are the wounds which sin has made. Christ, the Physician. 4. Enslaved by sin, and bound in chains. Redemption. 5. Eternal power, almighty God. Divine Condescension. 6. Eternal Source of joys divine. Divine Assurance desired. 7. Great God, to Thee my evening song. Evening. 8. Great Source of boundless power and grace. Desiring to Trust in God. 9. Hear, gracious [God] Lord, my humble moan [prayer] . The presence of God desired. 10. Hear, O my God, with pity hear. Ps. cxliii. 11. How long shall earth's alluring toys ? On Longing after unseen pleasures. 12. How lovely, how divinely sweet. Ps. lxxziv. 13. How oft, alas, this wretched heart. Pardoning Love. 14. In vain my roving thoughts would find. Lasting Happiness. 15. Jesus, the spring of joys divine. Christ the Way. 16. Lord, how mysterious are Thy ways. Providence. 17. Lord, Thou hast been Thy Children's God. Ps. xc. 18. Lord, we adore Thy boundless grace. Divine Bounty. 19. Lord, when my [our] raptured thought surveys. Creation and Providence. 20. Lord, when my thoughts delighted rove. Passiontide. 21. My God, 'tis to Thy mercy seat. Divine Mercy. 22. My God, to Thee I call. Lent. 23. O for a sweet, inspiring ray. The Ascended Saviour. 24. O Thou Whose tender mercy hears. Lent. 25. Permit me, Lord, to seek Thy face. Strength and Safety in God alone. 26. Should famine o'er the mourning field. During Scarcity. 27. So fades the lovely, blooming flower. Death of a Child. 28. Stretched on the Cross the Saviour dies. Good Friday. 29. The Lord, my Shepherd and my Guide. Ps.xxiii. 30. The Lord, the God of glory reigns. Ps. xciii. 31. The Saviour calls; let every ear. The Invitation. 32. There is a glorious world on high. True Honour. 33. Thou lovely [only] Source of true delight. Desiring to know Jesus. 34. Thou only Sovereign of my heart. Life in Christ alone. 35. To Jesus, our exalted Lord. Holy Communion. 36. To our Redeemer's glorious Name. Praise to the Redeemer. 37. To your Creator, God. A Rural Hymn. 38. When I survey life's varied scene. Resignation. 39. When sins and fears prevailing rise. Christ the Life of the Soul. 40. Where is my God? does He retire. Rreathing after God. 41. While my Redeemer's near. The Good Shepherd. 42. Why sinks my weak desponding mind? Hope in God. 43. Ye earthly vanities, depart. Love for Christ desired. 44. Ye glittering toys of earih adieu. The Pearl of great Price. 45. Ye humble souls, approach your God. Divine Goodness. ii. From the Bristol Baptist Collection of Ash & Evans, 1769. 46. Come ye that love the Saviour's Name. Jesus, the King of Saints. 47. How helpless guilty nature lies. Need of Receiving Grace. 48. Praise ye the Lord let praise employ. Praise. iii. Centos and Altered Texts, 49. How blest are those, how truly wise. True honour. From "There is a glorious world on high." 50. How far beyond our mortal view. Christ the Supreme Beauty. From "Should nature's charms to please the eye," 1760, st. iii. 51. In vain I trace creation o'er. True happiness. From "When fancy spreads her boldest wings," 1760, st. ii. 52. Jesus, and didst thou leave the sky? Praise to Jesus. From “Jesus, in Thy transporting name," 1760, st. iv. 53. Look up, my soul, with cheerful eye. Breathing after God. From No. 40, st. v. 54. Lord, in the temple of Thy grace. Christ His people's Joy. From "The wondering nations have beheld," 1760, st. iii. 55. My God, O could I make the claim. Part of No. 9 above. 56. My soul, to God, its source, aspires. God, the Soul's only Portion. From "In vain the world's alluring smile," st. iii. 57. O could our thoughts and wishes fly. Part of No. 11 above, st. iv. 58. O for the eye of faith divine. Death anticipated. From "When death appears before my sight," 1760, st. iii., vii., viii. altered, with opening stanzas from another source. 59. O Jesus, our exalted Head. Holy Communion. From "To Jesus, our exalted Lord." See No. 35. 60. O world of bliss, could mortal eyes. Heaven. From "Far from these narrow scenes of night." 61. See, Lord, Thy willing subjects bow. Praise to Christ. From "O dearer to my thankful heart," 1780, st. 5. 62. Stern winter throws his icy chains. Winter. From "Now faintly smile day's hasty hours," 1760, st. ii. 63. Sure, the blest Comforter is nigh. Whitsuntide. From "Dear Lord, and shall Thy Spirit rest," 1760, st. iii. 64. The God of my salvation lives. In Affliction. From, "Should famine, &c," No. 26, st. iv. 65. The Gospel, O what endless charms. The Gospel of Redeeming Love. From "Come, Heavenly Love, inspire my song." 66. The mind was formed lo mount sublime. The Fettered Mind. From "Ah! why should this immortal mind?" 1760, st. ii. 67. The once loved form now cold and dead. Death of a Child. From "Life is a span, a fleeting hour," 1760, st. iii. 68. Thy gracious presence, O my God. Consolation in Affliction. From "In vain, while dark affliction spreads," 1780, st. iv. 69. Thy kingdom, Lord, for ever stands. Ps. cxlv. From "My God, my King, to Thee I'll raise," 1760, st. xii. 70. Triumphant, Christ ascends on high. Ascension. From "Come, Heavenly Love, inspire my song," 1760, st. xxxii. 71. When blest with that transporting view. Christ the Redeemer. From "Almighty Father, gracious Lord," 1760, st. xi. 72. When death before my sight. Death Anticipated. From "When death appears before my sight," 1760. 73. When gloomy thoughts and boding fears. Com¬forts of Religion. From "O blest religion, heavenly fair," 1760, st. ii. 74. When weary souls with sin distrest. Invitation to Rest. From "Come, weary souls, with sin distressed," 1760. 75. Whene'er the angry passions rise. Example of Christ. From “And is the gospel peace and love?" 1760, st. ii. All the foregoing hymns are in D. Sedgwick's reprint of Miss Steele's Hymns, 1863. --Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ==================== Steele, Anne, p. 1089, i., Additional hymns in common use: 1. Amazing love that stoop'd so low. Thankfulness. From "O dearer to my thankful heart," 1780, iii. 2. Bright scenes of bliss, unclouded skies. Saved by Hope. Poems, 1760, i. p. 228. 3. Jesus demands this heart of mine. Pardon De¬sired. Poems, 1760, i. p. 120. 4. Jesus, Thou Source divine. Christ the Way. Poems, 1760, i. p. 53, altered. 5. Lord, how mysterious are Thy ways. Mysteries of Providence. Poems, 1760, i. p. 131. 6. Lord^in Thy great, Thy glorious Name. Ps. xxxi. Poems, 1760, ii. p. 158. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Reginald Heber

1783 - 1826 Author of "The Son of God goes forth to war" in The Hymnal Reginald Heber was born in 1783 into a wealthy, educated family. He was a bright youth, translating a Latin classic into English verse by the time he was seven, entering Oxford at 17, and winning two awards for his poetry during his time there. After his graduation he became rector of his father's church in the village of Hodnet near Shrewsbury in the west of England where he remained for 16 years. He was appointed Bishop of Calcutta in 1823 and worked tirelessly for three years until the weather and travel took its toll on his health and he died of a stroke. Most of his 57 hymns, which include "Holy, Holy, Holy," are still in use today. -- Greg Scheer, 1995 ==================== Heber, Reginald, D.D. Born at Malpas, April 21, 1783, educated at Brasenose College, Oxford; Vicar of Hodnet, 1807; Bishop of Calcutta, 1823; died at Trichinopoly, India, April 3, 1826. The gift of versification shewed itself in Heber's childhood; and his Newdigate prize poem Palestine, which was read to Scott at breakfast in his rooms at Brazenose, Oxford, and owed one of its most striking passages to Scott's suggestion, is almost the only prize poem that has won a permanent place in poetical literature. His sixteen years at Hodnet, where he held a halfway position between a parson and a squire, were marked not only by his devoted care of his people, as a parish priest, but by literary work. He was the friend of Milman, Gifford, Southey, and others, in the world of letters, endeared to them by his candour, gentleness, "salient playfulness," as well as learning and culture. He was on the original staff of The Quarterly Review; Bampton Lecturer (1815); and Preacher at Lincoln's Inn (1822). His edition of Jeremy Taylor is still the classic edition. During this portion of his life he had often had a lurking fondness for India, had traced on the map Indian journeys, and had been tempted to wish himself Bishop of Calcutta. When he was forty years old the literary life was closed by his call to the Episcopate. No memory of Indian annals is holier than that of the three years of ceaseless travel, splendid administration, and saintly enthusiasm, of his tenure of the see of Calcutta. He ordained the first Christian native—Christian David. His first visitation ranged through Bengal, Bombay, and Ceylon; and at Delhi and Lucknow he was prostrated with fever. His second visitation took him through the scenes of Schwartz's labours in Madras Presidency to Trichinopoly, where on April 3,1826, he confirmed forty-two persons, and he was deeply moved by the impression of the struggling mission, so much so that “he showed no appearance of bodily exhaus¬tion." On his return from the service ”He retired into his own room, and according to his invariable custom, wrote on the back of the address on Confirmation 'Trichinopoly, April 3, 1826.' This was his last act, for immediately on taking off his clothes, he went into a large cold bath, where he had bathed the two preceding mornings, but which was now the destined agent of his removal to Paradise. Half an hour after, his servant, alarmed at his long absence, entered the room and found him a lifeless corpse." Life, &c, 1830, vol. ii. p. 437. Heber's hymns were all written during the Hodnet period. Even the great missionary hymn, "From Greenland's icy mountains," notwithstanding the Indian allusions ("India's coral strand," "Ceylon's isle"), was written before he received the offer of Calcutta. The touching funeral hymn, "Thou art gone to the grave," was written on the loss of his first babe, which was a deep grief to him. Some of the hymns were published (1811-16) in the Christian Observer, the rest were not published till after his death. They formed part of a ms. collection made for Hodnet (but not published), which contained, besides a few hymns from older and special sources, contributions by Milman. The first idea of the collection appears in a letter in 1809 asking for a copy of the Olney Hymns, which he "admired very much." The plan was to compose hymns connected with the Epistles and Gospels, to be sung after the Nicene Creed. He was the first to publish sermons on the Sunday services (1822), and a writer in The Guardian has pointed out that these efforts of Heber were the germs of the now familiar practice, developed through the Christian Year (perhaps following Ken's Hymns on the Festivals), and by Augustus Hare, of welding together sermon, hymnal, and liturgy. Heber tried to obtain from Archbishop Manners Sutton and the Bishop of London (1820) authorization of his ms. collection of hymns by the Church, enlarging on the "powerful engine" which hymns were among Dissenters, and the irregular use of them in the church, which it was impossible to suppress, and better to regulate. The authorization was not granted. The lyric spirit of Scott and Byron passed into our hymns in Heber's verse; imparting a fuller rhythm to the older measures, as illustrated by "Oh, Saviour, is Thy promise fled," or the martial hymn, "The Son of God goes forth to war;" pressing into sacred service the freer rhythms of contemporary poetry (e.g. "Brightest and best of the sons of the morning"; "God that madest earth and heaven"); and aiming at consistent grace of literary expression.. Their beauties and faults spring from this modern spirit. They have not the scriptural strength of our best early hymns, nor the dogmatic force of the best Latin ones. They are too flowing and florid, and the conditions of hymn composition are not sufficiently understood. But as pure and graceful devotional poetry, always true and reverent, they are an unfailing pleasure. The finest of them is that majestic anthem, founded on the rhythm of the English Bible, "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty." The greatest evidence of Heber's popularity as a hymnwriter, and his refined taste as a compiler, is found in the fact that the total contents of his ms. collection which were given in his posthumous Hymns written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year. London, J. Murray, 1827; which included 57 hymns by Heber, 12 by Milman, and 29 by other writers, are in common in Great Britain and America at the present time. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] Of Bishop Heber's hymns, about one half are annotated under their respective first lines. Those given below were published in Heber's posthumous Hymns, &c, 1827. Some of them are in extensive use in Great Britain and America; but as they possess no special histories they are grouped together as from the Hymns, &c, 1827:— 1. Beneath our feet, and o'er our head. Burial. 2. Creator of the rolling flood. St. Peter's Day, or, Gospel for 6th Sunday after Trinity. 3. Lo, the lilies of the field. Teachings of Nature: or, Gospel for 15th Sunday after Trinity. 4. 0 God, by Whom the seed is given. Sexagesima. 6. 0 God, my sins are manifold. Forgiveness, or, Gospel for 22nd S. after Trinity. 6. 0 hand of bounty, largely spread. Water into Wine, or, Gospel for 2nd S. after Epiphany. 7. 0 King of earth, and air, and sea. Feeding the Multitude; or, Gospel for 4th S. in Lent. 8. 0 more than merciful, Whose bounty gave. Good Friday. 9. 0 most merciful! 0 most bountiful. Introit Holy Communion. 10. 0 Thou, Whom neither time nor space. God unsearchable, or, Gospel for 5th Sunday in Lent. 11. 0 weep not o'er thy children's tomb. Innocents Day. 12. Room for the proud! Ye sons of clay. Dives and Lazarus, or, Gospel for 1st Sunday after Trinity. 13. Sit thou on my right hand, my Son, saith the Lord. Ascension. 14. Spirit of truth, on this thy day. Whit-Sunday. 15. The feeble pulse, the gasping breath. Burial, or, Gospel for 1st S. after Trinity. 16. The God of glory walks His round. Septuagesima, or, the Labourers in the Marketplace. 17. The sound of war in earth and air. Wrestling against Principalities and Powers, or, Epistle for 2lst Sunday after Trinity. 18. The world is grown old, her pleasures are past. Advent; or, Epistle for 4th Sunday in Advent. 19. There was joy in heaven. The Lost Sheep; or, Gospel for 3rd S. after Trinity. 20. Though sorrows rise and dangers roll. St. James's Day. 21. To conquer and to save, the Son of God. Christ the Conqueror. 22. Virgin-born, we bow before Thee. The Virgin Mary. Blessed amongst women, or, Gospel for 3rd S. in Lent. 23. Wake not, 0 mother, sounds of lamentation. Raising the Widow's Son, or, Gospel for 16th S. after Trinity. 24. When on her Maker's bosom. Holy Matrimony, or, Gospel for 2nd S. after Epiphany. 25. When through the torn sail the wild tempest is streaming. Stilling the Sea, or, Gospel for 4th Sunday after Epiphany. 26. Who yonder on the desert heath. The Good Samaritan, or, Gospel for 13th Sunday after Trinity. This list is a good index of the subjects treated of in those of Heber's hymns which are given under their first lines, and shows that he used the Gospels far more than the Epistles in his work. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

William Cowper

1731 - 1800 Author of "God Moves in a Mysterious Way" in Baptist Hymnal 1991 William Cowper (pronounced "Cooper"; b. Berkampstead, Hertfordshire, England, 1731; d. East Dereham, Norfolk, England, 1800) is regarded as one of the best early Romantic poets. To biographers he is also known as "mad Cowper." His literary talents produced some of the finest English hymn texts, but his chronic depression accounts for the somber tone of many of those texts. Educated to become an attorney, Cowper was called to the bar in 1754 but never practiced law. In 1763 he had the opportunity to become a clerk for the House of Lords, but the dread of the required public examination triggered his tendency to depression, and he attempted suicide. His subsequent hospitalization and friendship with Morley and Mary Unwin provided emotional stability, but the periods of severe depression returned. His depression was deepened by a religious bent, which often stressed the wrath of God, and at times Cowper felt that God had predestined him to damnation. For the last two decades of his life Cowper lived in Olney, where John Newton became his pastor. There he assisted Newton in his pastoral duties, and the two collaborated on the important hymn collection Olney Hymns (1779), to which Cowper contributed sixty-eight hymn texts. Bert Polman ============ Cowper, William, the poet. The leading events in the life of Cowper are: born in his father's rectory, Berkhampstead, Nov. 26, 1731; educated at Westminster; called to the Bar, 1754; madness, 1763; residence at Huntingdon, 1765; removal to Olney, 1768; to Weston, 1786; to East Dereham, 1795; death there, April 25, 1800. The simple life of Cowper, marked chiefly by its innocent recreations and tender friendships, was in reality a tragedy. His mother, whom he commemorated in the exquisite "Lines on her picture," a vivid delineation of his childhood, written in his 60th year, died when he was six years old. At his first school he was profoundly wretched, but happier at Westminster; excelling at cricket and football, and numbering Warren Hastings, Colman, and the future model of his versification. Churchill, among his contemporaries or friends. Destined for the Bar, he was articled to a solicitor, along with Thurlow. During this period he fell in love with his cousin, Theodora Cowper, sister to Lady Hesketh, and wrote love poems to her. The marriage was forbidden by her father, but she never forgot him, and in after years secretly aided his necessities. Fits of melancholy, from which he had suffered in school days, began to increase, as he entered on life, much straitened in means after his father's death. But on the whole, it is the playful, humorous side of him that is most prominent in the nine years after his call to the Bar; spent in the society of Colman, Bonnell Thornton, and Lloyd, and in writing satires for The Connoisseur and St. James's Chronicle and halfpenny ballads. Then came the awful calamity, which destroyed all hopes of distinction, and made him a sedentary invalid, dependent on his friends. He had been nominated to the Clerkship of the Journals of the House of Lords, but the dread of appearing before them to show his fitness for the appointment overthrew his reason. He attempted his life with "laudanum, knife and cord,"—-in the third attempt nearly succeeding. The dark delusion of his life now first showed itself—a belief in his reprobation by God. But for the present, under the wise and Christian treatment of Dr. Cotton (q. v.) at St. Albans, it passed away; and the eight years that followed, of which the two first were spent at Huntingdon (where he formed his lifelong friendship with Mrs. Unwin), and the remainder at Olney in active piety among the poor, and enthusiastic devotions under the guidance of John Newton (q. v.), were full of the realisation of God's favour, and the happiest, most lucid period of his life. But the tension of long religious exercises, the nervous excitement of leading at prayer meetings, and the extreme despondence (far more than the Calvinism) of Newton, could scarcely have been a healthy atmosphere for a shy, sensitive spirit, that needed most of all the joyous sunlight of Christianity. A year after his brother's death, madness returned. Under the conviction that it was the command of God, he attempted suicide; and he then settled down into a belief in stark contradiction to his Calvinistic creed, "that the Lord, after having renewed him in holiness, had doomed him to everlasting perdition" (Southey). In its darkest form his affliction lasted sixteen months, during which he chiefly resided in J. Newton's house, patiently tended by him and by his devoted nurse, Mrs. Unwin. Gradually he became interested in carpentering, gardening, glazing, and the tendance of some tame hares and other playmates. At the close of 1780, Mrs. Unwin suggested to him some serious poetical work; and the occupation proved so congenial, that his first volume was published in 1782. To a gay episode in 1783 (his fascination by the wit of Lady Austen) his greatest poem, The Task, and also John Gilpin were owing. His other principal work was his Homer, published in 1791. The dark cloud had greatly lifted from his life when Lady Hesketh's care accomplished his removal to Weston (1786): but the loss of his dear friend William Unwin lowered it again for some months. The five years' illness of Mrs. Unwin, during which his nurse of old became his tenderly-watched patient, deepened the darkness more and more. And her death (1796) brought “fixed despair," of which his last poem, The Castaway, is the terrible memorial. Perhaps no more beautiful sentence has been written of him, than the testimony of one, who saw him after death, that with the "composure and calmness" of the face there “mingled, as it were, a holy surprise." Cowper's poetry marks the dawn of the return from the conventionality of Pope to natural expression, and the study of quiet nature. His ambition was higher than this, to be the Bard of Christianity. His great poems show no trace of his monomania, and are full of healthy piety. His fame as a poet is less than as a letter-writer: the charm of his letters is unsurpassed. Though the most considerable poet, who has written hymns, he has contributed little to the development of their structure, adopting the traditional modes of his time and Newton's severe canons. The spiritual ideas of the hymns are identical with Newton's: their highest note is peace and thankful contemplation, rather than joy: more than half of them are full of trustful or reassuring faith: ten of them are either submissive (44), self-reproachful (17, 42, 43), full of sad yearning (1, 34), questioning (9), or dark spiritual conflict (38-40). The specialty of Cowper's handling is a greater plaintiveness, tenderness, and refinement. A study of these hymns as they stood originally under the classified heads of the Olney Hymns, 1779, which in some cases probably indicate the aim of Cowper as well as the ultimate arrangement of the book by Newton, shows that one or two hymns were more the history of his conversion, than transcripts of present feelings; and the study of Newton's hymns in the same volume, full of heavy indictment against the sins of his own regenerate life, brings out the peculiar danger of his friendship to the poet: it tends also to modify considerably the conclusions of Southey as to the signs of incipient madness in Cowper's maddest hymns. Cowper's best hymns are given in The Book of Praise by Lord Selborne. Two may be selected from them; the exquisitely tender "Hark! my soul, it is the Lord" (q. v.), and "Oh, for a closer walk with God" (q. v.). Anyone who knows Mrs. Browning's noble lines on Cowper's grave will find even a deeper beauty in the latter, which is a purely English hymn of perfect structure and streamlike cadence, by connecting its sadness and its aspiration not only with the “discord on the music" and the "darkness on the glory," but the rapture of his heavenly waking beneath the "pathetic eyes” of Christ. Authorities. Lives, by Hayley; Grimshaw; Southey; Professor Goldwin Smith; Mr. Benham (attached to Globe Edition); Life of Newton, by Rev. Josiah Bull; and the Olney Hymns. The numbers of the hymns quoted refer to the Olney Hymns. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Cowper, W. , p. 265, i. Other hymns are:— 1. Holy Lord God, I love Thy truth. Hatred of Sin. 2. I was a grovelling creature once. Hope and Confidence. 3. No strength of nature can suffice. Obedience through love. 4. The Lord receives His highest praise. Faith. 5. The saints should never be dismayed. Providence. All these hymns appeared in the Olney Hymns, 1779. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ===================== Cowper, W., p. 265, i. Prof. John E. B. Mayor, of Cambridge, contributed some letters by Cowper, hitherto unpublished, together with notes thereon, to Notes and Queries, July 2 to Sept. 24, 1904. These letters are dated from Huntingdon, where he spent two years after leaving St. Alban's (see p. 265, i.), and Olney. The first is dated "Huntingdon, June 24, 1765," and the last "From Olney, July 14, 1772." They together with extracts from other letters by J. Newton (dated respectively Aug. 8, 1772, Nov. 4, 1772), two quotations without date, followed by the last in the N. & Q. series, Aug. 1773, are of intense interest to all students of Cowper, and especially to those who have given attention to the religious side of the poet's life, with its faint lights and deep and awful shadows. From the hymnological standpoint the additional information which we gather is not important, except concerning the hymns "0 for a closer walk with God," "God moves in a mysterious way," "Tis my happiness below," and "Hear what God, the Lord, hath spoken." Concerning the last three, their position in the manuscripts, and the date of the last from J. Newton in the above order, "Aug. 1773," is conclusive proof against the common belief that "God moves in a mysterious way" was written as the outpouring of Cowper's soul in gratitude for the frustration of his attempted suicide in October 1773. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Charles Wesley

1707 - 1788 Person Name: C. Wesley Author of "Try Us, O God, and Search the Ground" in The New Canadian Hymnal Charles Wesley, M.A. was the great hymn-writer of the Wesley family, perhaps, taking quantity and quality into consideration, the great hymn-writer of all ages. Charles Wesley was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley, and was born at Epworth Rectory, Dec. 18, 1707. In 1716 he went to Westminster School, being provided with a home and board by his elder brother Samuel, then usher at the school, until 1721, when he was elected King's Scholar, and as such received his board and education free. In 1726 Charles Wesley was elected to a Westminster studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took his degree in 1729, and became a college tutor. In the early part of the same year his religious impressions were much deepened, and he became one of the first band of "Oxford Methodists." In 1735 he went with his brother John to Georgia, as secretary to General Oglethorpe, having before he set out received Deacon's and Priest's Orders on two successive Sundays. His stay in Georgia was very short; he returned to England in 1736, and in 1737 came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians, especially of that remarkable man who had so large a share in moulding John Wesley's career, Peter Bonier, and also of a Mr. Bray, a brazier in Little Britain. On Whitsunday, 1737, [sic. 1738] he "found rest to his soul," and in 1738 he became curate to his friend, Mr. Stonehouse, Vicar of Islington, but the opposition of the churchwardens was so great that the Vicar consented that he "should preach in his church no more." Henceforth his work was identified with that of his brother John, and he became an indefatigable itinerant and field preacher. On April 8, 1749, he married Miss Sarah Gwynne. His marriage, unlike that of his brother John, was a most happy one; his wife was accustomed to accompany him on his evangelistic journeys, which were as frequent as ever until the year 1756," when he ceased to itinerate, and mainly devoted himself to the care of the Societies in London and Bristol. Bristol was his headquarters until 1771, when he removed with his family to London, and, besides attending to the Societies, devoted himself much, as he had done in his youth, to the spiritual care of prisoners in Newgate. He had long been troubled about the relations of Methodism to the Church of England, and strongly disapproved of his brother John's "ordinations." Wesley-like, he expressed his disapproval in the most outspoken fashion, but, as in the case of Samuel at an earlier period, the differences between the brothers never led to a breach of friendship. He died in London, March 29, 1788, and was buried in Marylebone churchyard. His brother John was deeply grieved because he would not consent to be interred in the burial-ground of the City Road Chapel, where he had prepared a grave for himself, but Charles said, "I have lived, and I die, in the Communion of the Church of England, and I will be buried in the yard of my parish church." Eight clergymen of the Church of England bore his pall. He had a large family, four of whom survived him; three sons, who all became distinguished in the musical world, and one daughter, who inherited some of her father's poetical genius. The widow and orphans were treated with the greatest kindness and generosity by John Wesley. As a hymn-writer Charles Wesley was unique. He is said to have written no less than 6500 hymns, and though, of course, in so vast a number some are of unequal merit, it is perfectly marvellous how many there are which rise to the highest degree of excellence. His feelings on every occasion of importance, whether private or public, found their best expression in a hymn. His own conversion, his own marriage, the earthquake panic, the rumours of an invasion from France, the defeat of Prince Charles Edward at Culloden, the Gordon riots, every Festival of the Christian Church, every doctrine of the Christian Faith, striking scenes in Scripture history, striking scenes which came within his own view, the deaths of friends as they passed away, one by one, before him, all furnished occasions for the exercise of his divine gift. Nor must we forget his hymns for little children, a branch of sacred poetry in which the mantle of Dr. Watts seems to have fallen upon him. It would be simply impossible within our space to enumerate even those of the hymns which have become really classical. The saying that a really good hymn is as rare an appearance as that of a comet is falsified by the work of Charles Wesley; for hymns, which are really good in every respect, flowed from his pen in quick succession, and death alone stopped the course of the perennial stream. It has been the common practice, however for a hundred years or more to ascribe all translations from the German to John Wesley, as he only of the two brothers knew that language; and to assign to Charles Wesley all the original hymns except such as are traceable to John Wesley through his Journals and other works. The list of 482 original hymns by John and Charles Wesley listed in this Dictionary of Hymnology have formed an important part of Methodist hymnody and show the enormous influence of the Wesleys on the English hymnody of the nineteenth century. -- Excerpts from John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Charles Wesley, the son of Samuel Wesley, was born at Epworth, Dec. 18, 1707. He was educated at Westminster School and afterwards at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. In 1735, he took Orders and immediately proceeded with his brother John to Georgia, both being employed as missionaries of the S.P.G. He returned to England in 1736. For many years he engaged with his brother in preaching the Gospel. He died March 29, 1788. To Charles Wesley has been justly assigned the appellation of the "Bard of Methodism." His prominence in hymn writing may be judged from the fact that in the "Wesleyan Hymn Book," 623 of the 770 hymns were written by him; and he published more than thirty poetical works, written either by himself alone, or in conjunction with his brother. The number of his separate hymns is at least five thousand. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872.

John Greenleaf Whittier

1807 - 1892 Person Name: John G. Whittier Author of "O Lord and Master of Us All" in The Cyber Hymnal Whittier, John Greenleaf, the American Quaker poet, was born at Haverhill, Massachusetts, Dec. 17, 1807. He began life as a farm-boy and shoemaker, and subsequently became a successful journalist, editor and poet. In 1828 he became editor of the American Manufacturer (Boston), in 1830 of the New England Review, and an 1836 (on becoming Secretary to the American Anti-Slavery Society) of the Pennsylvania Freeman. He was also for some time, beginning with 1847, the corresponding editor of the National Era. In 1840 he removed to Amesbury, Massachusetts, where most of his later works have been written. At the present time [1890] he lives alternately at Amesbury and Boston. His first poetical piece was printed in the Newburyport Free Press in 1824. Since then his publications have been numerous, including:— Voices of Freedom, 1833; Songs of Labour, and other Poems, 1850; Ballads and other Poems, London, 1844; The Panorama, and other Poems, 1856; In War Time, 1863; Occasional Poems, 1865; Poetical Works, 1869; Complete Poetical Works, 1876; The Bay of the Seven Islands, and other Poems, 1883, &c. From his numerous poems the following hymns have been compiled, and have come into common use, more especially amongst the American Unitarians:— 1. All as God wills, Who wisely heeds. Trust. This begins with stanza xi. of Whittier's poem, "My Psalm." in his workThe Panorama, and other Poems, 1856 (Complete Poetical Works, Boston, 1876, p. 179), and is given in Lyra Sacra Americana , 1868; Border's Congregational Hymns, 1884, &c. 2. All things are Thine: no gift have we. Opening of a Place of Worship. Written for the Opening of Plymouth Church, Minnesota, 1872 ( Complete Poetical Works , p. 281). In Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 3. Another hand is beckoning us. Bereavement. From his poem " Gone," written in 1845 (Complete Poetical Works, p. 106). In Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 4. Dear Lord and Father of mankind. Calmness in God desired. From his poem “The Brewing of Soma," beginning with stanza xii. (Complete Poetical Works p. 266). In Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 5. God giveth quietness at last. Death and Burial. This begins with stanza xvii. of his poem, “The Singer," written in 1871 (Author's MS.), and included in the Complete Poetical Works, 1876, p. 265. In Martineau's Hymns, 1875. 6. Hast thou, 'midst life's empty noises. The Purpose of Life. Written in 1842. It is in Longfellow and Johnson's Unitarian Book of Hymns, Boston, 1846, and several other later American collections. Also in Lyra Sacra Americana, 1864. 7. I ask not now for gold to gild. Resignation. From his poem "The Wish of To-Day." Written in 1848 (Author's MS.). In Hedge and Huntingdon's Unitarian Hymns for the Church of Christ, Boston, 1853; the Laudes Domini, 1884, and other collections. 8. Immortal love, for ever full. The Love of Jesus. This poem, entitled “Our Master," appeared in Whittier's work, The Panorama, and other Poems, 1856, in 35 stanzas of 4 lines; in Schaff’s Christ in Song, 1869-70, p. 117; and in the Complete Poetical Works, 1876, p. 231, and others. From this poem the following centos have come into common use:— (1) Immortal love for ever full. In the 1890 edition of the Hymnal Companion and others. (2) 0 Lord and Master of us all. Begins with stanza xvi. (3) 0 Love! O Life! our faith and sight. Begins with stanza xxiv. In several American hymnals, including the Unitarian Hymn [and Tune Book ], Boston, 1868, and others. (4) Our Friend, our Brother, and our Lord. Begins with stanza xxxiv. In Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884, &c. (5) We faintly hear, we dimly see. Begins with stanza xxvi. In Barrett's Congregational Church Hymnal, 1887. (6) We may not climb the heavenly steeps. Begins with stanza v. In Laudes Domini, 1884; the Primitive Methodist Hymnal, 1887, &c. The use of these centos shows that the hymnic element in the original poem is of a high and enduring order. 9. It may not be our lot to wield. Duty and its Reward. This begins with stanza iv. of his poem "Seedtime and Harvest." Written circa 1850 (Author's MS.). Given in his Complete Poetical Works, p. 114. The hymn is in Laudes Domini, 1884, and other American collections. 10. May freedom speed onward, wherever the blood. Freedom. In the 1848 Supplement to the Boston Book of Hymns, Boston, No. 582, Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and other collections. In Whittier's Poetical Works, Boston, 1869, p. 68, it is given as, “Right onward, O speed it! Wherever the blood”. 11. Now is the seed-time; God alone. Self-Sacrifice. In the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, No. 683. 12. 0 backward-looking son of time. New and Old. This begins with stanza xix. of his poem "The Reformer," and is given in this form in the Boston Hymns for the Church of Christ, Boston, 1853, No. 835, and again in later collections. In full in the Complete Poetical Works, p. 78. 13. 0 beauty, old yet ever new. The Law of Love. This in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, begins with stanza xxi. of his poem on “The Shadow and the Light,” given in full in the Complete Poetical Works , p. 173. 14. 0 fairest-born of love and light. American National Hymn. This is from his poem "Democracy," which is dated "Election Day, 1843," and is in his Ballads and other Poems, London, 1844, p. 214, and his Complete Poetical Works, p. 82. 15. 0, he whom Jesus loves has truly spoken. True Worship. This in the 1848 Supplement to the Boston Book of Hymns, 1848, No. 578, begins with stanza xi. of his poem on “Worship," given in full in his Complete Poetical Works, p. 96. The poem is dated by the Author, 1848 (Author's MS.). 16. 0 holy Father, just and true. Freedom. "Lines written for the Celebration of the third Anniversary of British Emancipation at the Broadway Tabernacle, N. Y., First of August, 1837." (Complete Poetical Works, p. 47.) It was included in the Unitarian Christian Hymns, Boston, 1844, and has been repeated in later collections. 17. 0 Maker of the Fruits and Flowers. Flower Services. This begins with stanza iv. of his "Lines for the Agricultural and Horticultural Exhibition at Amesbury and Salisbury, Sep. 28, 1858," as given in his Complete Poetical Works , p. 183. It is in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and as "O Painter of the fruits and flowers," in Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 18. O not alone with outward sign. Divine Invitation. This begins with stanza ii. of his poem, "The Call of the Christian," given in his Ballads and other Poems, London, 1844, p. 185, and his Complete Poetical Works, p. 73. The hymn appeared in the Boston Book of Hymns, 1846, and again in later collections. 19. O pure Reformers, not in vain. Freedom. This begins with stanza xii. of his poem "To the Reformers of England," as given in his Complete Poetical Works, p. 77. The hymn was included in the Boston Book of Hymns, 1846, and has been repeated in later collections. 20. O sometimes gleams upon our sight. Old and New. This is taken from his poem "The Chapel of the Hermits," 1852 (in 94 stanzas of 4 lines), and begins with stanza xi. (Comp. Poetical Works, p. 115.) The cento was given in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and repeated in later collections. 21. O Thou, at Whose rebuke the grave. Mercy. This was given in the Boston Book of Hymns, 1848, No. 44l. 22. O [God] Thou, Whose presence went before. National Hymn. This hymn is dated by the author 1834 (Author's MS.), and was written for the Anti-slavery Meeting at Chatham Street Chapel, New York, "on the 4th of the 7th month, 1831." It is No. 750 in the Unitarian Christian Hymns, 1844. It is sometimes given as “0 God, whose presence went before." 23. 0, what though our feet may not tread where Christ trod. Presence of Christ's Spirit. The author dates this 1837 (Author's MS.). It is No. 150 in the Boston Book of Hymns, 1846. In their Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, No. 652, it begins: "0, wherefore the dream of the earthly abode." Both centos are from his poem “Poledom." 24. Shall we grow weary in our watch? Patience, or Resignation. This begins with stanza x. of his poem "The Cypress-Tree of Ceylon." (Complete Poetical Works, p. 84.) This form of the text was given in the Boston Book of Hymns, 1846, No. 278, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines, and again in Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884, in 3 stanzas. 25. Sport of the changeful multitude. Persecution. This begins with line 6 of stanza x. of his poem "Ezekiel," and was given in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, No. 65lines In full in Complete Poetical Works, p. 67. 26. The green earth sends its incense up. Worship of Nature. The author dates this 1845 (Author's MS.). It is from his poem “The Worship of Nature," and was given in this form in the Boston Hymns for the Church of Christ, 1853, No. 193. The cento "The harp at Nature's advent strung," in the Unitarian Hymn [and Tune] Book, Boston, 1868, No. 195, is from the same poem. The cento No. 321 in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, is also (altered) from this poem. 27. The path of life we walk today. The Shadowing Rock. This in the Boston Hys. of the Spirit, 1864, begins with stanza i. of his poem on "The Rock in El Gh'or," which the author dates 1859 (Author's MS.). In full in Complete Poetical Works, p. 180. 28. Thine are all the gifts, 0 God. Children's Missions, or Ragged Schools. Written for the Anniversary of the Children's Mission, Boston, 1878. It is given in Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 29. Thou hast fallen in thine armour. Death. From his poem "To the memory of Charles B. Storrs, late President of Western Reserve College," published in his Ballads and other Poems, London, 1844, p. 84. Dated by the author 1835 (Author's MS.). Abridged form in the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864. 30. To-day, beneath Thy chastening eye. Seeking Rest. This begins with stanza iv. of his poem, "The Wish of To-Day," dated by the author 1847 (Author's MS.), and given in full in his Complete Poetical Works, p. 114. The cento is in Martineau's Hymns, 1873, and others. 31. We see not, know not; all our way. Resignation. "Written at the opening of the Civil War, 1861" (Author's MS.), and included in his In War Time, 1863, and his Complete Poetical Works, p. 190. In full in the Prim. Methodist Hymnal, 1887. 32. When on my day of life the night is falling. Old Age. Written in 1882 (Author's MS.), and included in his work The Bay of the Seven Islands, and other Poems, 1883. In Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884. 33. With silence only as their benediction. Death. 1845. "Written on the death of Sophia Sturge, sister of Joseph Sturge, of Birmingham, England" (Author's MS.). It is in several collections, including Martineau's Hymns, &c, 1873; Horder's Congregational Hymns, 1884, and others. Notwithstanding this extensive use of portions of Mr. Whittier's poems as hymns for congregational use, he modestly says concerning himself: "I am really not a hymn-writer, for the good reason that I know nothing of music. Only a very few of my pieces were written for singing. A good hymn is the best use to which poetry can be devoted, but I do not claim that I have succeeded in composing one." (Author's MS.) We must add, however, that these pieces are characterized by rich poetic beauty, sweet tenderness, and deep sympathy with human kind. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ======================== Whittier, J. G, p. 1277, i. In addition to the large number of this author's hymns already annotated from his own manuscript, the following have also come into use, mainly in the form of centos from his poems, during the past ten years:— i. From Poems, 1850:— 1. O brother man! Fold to thy heart thy brother. [Brotherly Love.] From his poem, “Worship." Written in 1848, and published in Poems, 1850. ii. From Songs of Labour, and Other Poems, 1850;— 2. Bowed down in lowliness of min. [Resignation.] From the poem “The Wish of To-day." iii. From The Chapel of the Hermits, and Other Poems, 1853:— 3. O, sometimes glimpses on our sight. [Light in Darkness.] First published in The National Era, 1851, and again as above, 1853. In The Pilgrim Hymnal, N.Y. 1904, it begins " 0 sometimes gleams upon our sight," and in Hymns of the Ages, 1904, "Yet sometimes glimpses on my sight"; see p. 1277, ii. 20. iv. From The Panorama, and Other Poems, 1856:— 4. Thou, 0 most compassionate. [Divine Compassion.] This cento is from the poem "My Dream," and is dated 1855. v. From Home Ballads and Poems, 1860:— 5. I mourn no more my vanished years. [Life's Review.] A cento from "My Psalm," dated 1859, opening with st. i. 6. No longer forward nor behind. This begins with st. iii. of "My Psalm." 7. O hearts of love, O souls that turn. [Life from, Christ.] A cento from the poem, "The Overheart." 8. O Love Divine, Whose constant beam. [Divine Love Universal.] From the poem, "The Shadow and the Light." The form in which it is given in The Pilgrim Hymnal, 1904, first appeared in The Independent, Nov. 1860. 9. Once more the liberal year laughs out. [Autumn.] From his "For an Autumn Festival," 1859. vi. From In War Time, and Other Poems, 1864:— 10. I can only urge the plea. [Cry for Mercy.] A cento from “Andrew Rykman’s Prayer,” dated 1863. 11. What Thou wilt, O Father, give. Also from “Andrew Kykman's Prayer." vii. From The Tent on the Beach, and Other Poems, 1867:— 12. I bow my forehead to [in] the dust. St. ix., &c. 13. I know not what the future hath. St. xvi., &c. 14. I long for household voices gone. St. xv., &c. 15. I see the wrong that round me lies. St. x., &c. 16. Who fathoms the Eternal Thought. St. iv., &c. 17. Yet, in the maddening maze of things. St. xi., &c. These centos are taken from the poem, "The Eternal Goodness," which is dated 1865. viii. From Among the Hills, and Other Poems, 1869:— 18. For ever round the mercy-seat. [God's Love and Man's Unfaithfulness.] From the poem, “The Answer." ix. From The Pennsylvania Pilgrim, and Other Poems, 1873:— 19. Best for the weary hands is good. [Daily Renewal.] This is from "My Birthday," which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, 1871, and again as above, 1873. x. From Hazel Blossoms, 1875:— 20. All things [gifts] are Thine, p. 1277, i. 2. The church for which this was written, in 1873, was Plymouth Church, St. Paul, Minn. The hymn was included in Hazel Blossoms, 1875. 21. We need love's tender lessons taught. [Love.] From Child-Songs," in Hazel Blossoms, opening with st. ix. xi. From The Bay of the Seven Islands, 1883:— 22. As from the lighted hearths behind me. [Anticipation of the Future.] This begins with st. iii. of the poem, "What the Traveller said at Sunset." xii. Additional Notes:— 23. Lord, for the things we see. [Public Gatherings.] This hymn is from "Poledom," 1837. 24. Not always as the whirlwind's rush. [Call to the Ministry.] Published in The Poetical Writings, 1857, Vol. i., p. 254, and again in the Oxford edition of his Poetical Works, 1904, p. 455. It is dated 1833. 25. Sound over all waters, [The Coming Kingdom.) This, in Horder's Worship Song, 1905, is from Whittier's Complete Poetical Works, Boston, 1876, p. 280, where it is dated 1873. 26. Take courage, Temperance workers. [Temperance.] Mr. Pickard, Whittier's literary executor, cannot trace this hymn in any of the author's writings, and we also are at fault. 27. The harp at Nature's advent strung. [Nature's acknowledgement of God.] Dr. Charles L. Noyes, one of the editors of The Pilgrim Hymnal, 1904, writes us concerning this hymn: "It was first published in its present form [as in the American hymn-books] in 1867 in The Tent on the Beach." But a hymn almost identical was written when Whittier was in his teens, and published in the Haverhill Gazette, October 5, 1827. The same poem appeared in The Palladium, 1829. It was revised for The Tent on the Beach, 1867 (p. 1278, i. 26). 28. We see not, know not; all our way, p. 1278, i. 31. This hymn, written in 1861, first appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, 1862, vol. 10, p. 235. 29. Wherever through the ages rise. [Love is universal.] Opens with line 1 of a section in the poem "Miriam," in Miriam, and Other Poems, 1871, p. 13. 30. Who calls Thy glorious service hard? [Duty.] This begins with st. iii. of his poem "Seedtime and Harvest," noted on p. 1277, ii. 9. 31. O Lord and Father of mankind. This is a slightly altered form of "Dear Lord and Father of mankind." p. 1277, i. 4. The poem, “Our Master," stated on p. 1277, i., No. 8, as having appeared in The Panorama, 1856, in error, was given in The Tent on the Beach, and Other Poems, Boston, 1867, pp. 143-152. In compiling the foregoing, we have been materially assisted by Mr. Pickard, the poet's literary executor, and the Rev. Dr. Charles L. Noyes, of Somerville, Mass. Whittier died at Hampton Falls, New Hampshire, Sep. 7, 1892. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907) ======================= See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

Joseph Addison

1672 - 1719 Author of "All Thy Mercies" in Redemption Songs Addison, Joseph, born at Milston, near Amesbury, Wiltshire, May 1, 1672, was the son of the Rev. Lancelot Addison, sometime Dean of Lichfield, and author of Devotional Poems, &c, 1699. Addison was educated at the Charterhouse, and at Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating B.A. 1691 and M.A. 1693. Although intended for the Church, he gave himself to the study of law and politics, and soon attained, through powerful influence, to some important posts. He was successively a Commissioner of Appeals, an Under Secretary of State, Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and Chief Secretary for Ireland. He married, in 1716, the Dowager Countess of Warwick, and died at Holland House, Kensington, June 17, 1719. Addison is most widely known through his contributions to The Spectator, The Toiler, The Guardian, and The Freeholder. To the first of these he contributed his hymns. His Cato, a tragedy, is well known and highly esteemed. Addison's claims to the authorship of the hymns usually ascribed to him, or to certain of them, have been called in question on two occasions. The first was the publication, by Captain Thompson, of certain of those hymns in his edition of the Works of Andrew Marvell, 1776, as the undoubted compositions of Marvell; and the second, a claim in the Athenaeum, July 10th, 1880, on behalf of the Rev. Richard Richmond. Fully to elucidate the subject it will be necessary, therefore, to give a chronological history of the hymns as they appeared in the Spectator from time to time. i. The History of the Hymns in The Spectator. This, as furnished in successive numbers of the Spectator is :— 1. The first of these hymns appeared in the Spectator of Saturday, July 26, 1712, No. 441, in 4 stanzas of 6 lines. The article in which it appeared was on Divine Providence, signed “C." The hymn itself, "The Lord my pasture shall prepare," was introduced with these words:— "David has very beautifully represented this steady reliance on God Almighty in his twenty-third psalm, which is a kind of pastoral hymn, and filled with those allusions which are usual in that kind of writing As the poetry is very exquisite, I shall present my readers with the following translation of it." (Orig. Broadsheet, Brit. Mus.) 2. The second hymn appeared in the Spectator on Saturday, Aug. 9, 1712, No. 453, in 13 st. of 4 1., and forms the conclusion of an essay on " Gratitude." It is also signed " C," and is thus introduced:— “I have already obliged the public with some pieces of divine poetry which have fallen into my hands, and as they have met with the reception which they deserve, I shall, from time to time, communicate any work of the same nature which has not appeared in print, and may be acceptable to my readers." (Orig. Broadsheet, British Museum) Then follows the hymn:—"When all Thy mercies, 0 my God." 3. The number of the Spectator for Tuesday, Aug. 19, 1712, No. 461, is composed of three parts. The first is an introductory paragraph by Addison, the second, an unsigned letter from Isaac Watts, together with a rendering by him of Ps. 114th; and the third, a letter from Steele. It is with the first two we have to deal. The opening paragraph by Addison is:— “For want of time to substitute something else in the Boom of them, I am at present obliged to publish Compliments above my Desert in the following Letters. It is no small Satisfaction, to have given Occasion to ingenious Men to employ their Thoughts upon sacred Subjects from the Approbation of such Pieces of Poetry as they have seen in my Saturday's papers. I shall never publish Verse on that Day but what is written by the same Hand; yet shall I not accompany those Writings with Eulogiums, but leave them to speak for themselves." (Orig. Broadsheet, British Museum

Henry Francis Lyte

1793 - 1847 Person Name: Henry F. Lyte Author of "The Mercies Of My God And King" in The Cyber Hymnal Lyte, Henry Francis, M.A., son of Captain Thomas Lyte, was born at Ednam, near Kelso, June 1, 1793, and educated at Portora (the Royal School of Enniskillen), and at Trinity College, Dublin, of which he was a Scholar, and where he graduated in 1814. During his University course he distinguished himself by gaining the English prize poem on three occasions. At one time he had intended studying Medicine; but this he abandoned for Theology, and took Holy Orders in 1815, his first curacy being in the neighbourhood of Wexford. In 1817, he removed to Marazion, in Cornwall. There, in 1818, he underwent a great spiritual change, which shaped and influenced the whole of his after life, the immediate cause being the illness and death of a brother clergyman. Lyte says of him:— "He died happy under the belief that though he had deeply erred, there was One whose death and sufferings would atone for his delinquencies, and be accepted for all that he had incurred;" and concerning himself he adds:— "I was greatly affected by the whole matter, and brought to look at life and its issue with a different eye than before; and I began to study my Bible, and preach in another manner than I had previously done." From Marazion he removed, in 1819, to Lymington, where he composed his Tales on the Lord's Prayer in verse (pub. in 1826); and in 1823 he was appointed Perpetual Curate of Lower Brixham, Devon. That appointment he held until his death, on Nov. 20, 1847. His Poems of Henry Vaughan, with a Memoir, were published in 1846. His own Poetical works were:— (1) Poems chiefly Religious 1833; 2nd ed. enlarged, 1845. (2) The Spirit of the Psalms, 1834, written in the first instance for use in his own Church at Lower Brixham, and enlarged in 1836; (3) Miscellaneous Poems (posthumously) in 1868. This last is a reprint of the 1845 ed. of his Poems, with "Abide with me" added. (4) Remains, 1850. Lyte's Poems have been somewhat freely drawn upon by hymnal compilers; but by far the larger portion of his hymns found in modern collections are from his Spirit of the Psalms. In America his hymns are very popular. In many instances, however, through mistaking Miss Auber's (q. v.) Spirit of the Psalms, 1829, for his, he is credited with more than is his due. The Andover Sabbath Hymn Book, 1858, is specially at fault in this respect. The best known and most widely used of his compositions are "Abide with me, fast falls the eventide;” “Far from my heavenly home;" "God of mercy, God of grace;" "Pleasant are Thy courts above;" "Praise, my soul, the King of heaven;" and "There is a safe and secret place." These and several others are annotated under their respective first lines: the rest in common use are:— i. From his Poems chiefly Religious, 1833 and 1845. 1. Above me hangs the silent sky. For Use at Sea. 2. Again, 0 Lord, I ope mine eyes. Morning. 3. Hail to another Year. New Year. 4. How good, how faithful, Lord, art Thou. Divine care of Men. 5. In tears and trials we must sow (1845). Sorrow followed by Joy. 6. My [our] rest is in heaven, my [our] rest is not here. Heaven our Home. 7. 0 Lord, how infinite Thy love. The Love of God in Christ. 8. Omniscient God, Thine eye divine. The Holy Ghost Omniscient. 9. The leaves around me falling. Autumn. 10. The Lord hath builded for Himself. The Universe the Temple of God. 11. Vain were all our toil and labour. Success is of God. 12. When at Thy footstool, Lord, I bend. Lent. 13. When earthly joys glide swift away. Ps. cii. 14. Wilt Thou return to me, O Lord. Lent. 15. With joy we hail the sacred day. Sunday. ii. From his Spirit of the Psalms, 1834. 16. Be merciful to us, O God. Ps. lvii. 17. Blest is the man who knows the Lord. Ps. cxii. 18. Blest is the man whose spirit shares. Ps. xli. 19. From depths of woe to God I cry. Ps. cxxxx. 20. Gently, gently lay Thy rod. Ps. vi. 21. Glorious Shepherd of the sheep. Ps. xxiii. 22. Glory and praise to Jehovah on high. Ps. xxix. 23. God in His Church is known. Ps. lxxvi. 24. God is our Refuge, tried and proved. Ps. xlvi. 25. Great Source of my being. Ps. lxxiii. 26. Hear, O Lord, our supplication. Ps. lxiv. 27. How blest the man who fears the Lord. Ps.cxxviii. 28. Humble, Lord, my haughty spirit. Ps. cxxxi. 29. In this wide, weary world of care. Ps. cxxxii. 30. In vain the powers of darkness try. Ps.lii. 31. Jehovah speaks, let man be awed. Ps. xlix. 32. Judge me, O Lord, and try my heart. Ps. xxvi. 33. Judge me, O Lord, to Thee I fly. Ps. xliii. 34. Lord, I have sinned, but O forgive. Ps. xli. 35. Lord, my God, in Thee I trust. Ps. vii. 36. Lord of the realms above, Our Prophet, &c. Ps.xlv. 37. Lone amidst the dead and dying. Ps. lxii. 38. Lord God of my salvation. Ps. lxxxviii. 39. Lord, I look to Thee for all. Ps. xxxi. 40. Lord, I would stand with thoughtful eye. Ps. lxix. 41. Lord, my God, in Thee I trust. Ps. vii. 42. My God, my King, Thy praise I sing. Ps. cviii. 43. My God, what monuments I see. Ps. xxxvi. 44. My spirit on [to] Thy care. Ps. xxxi. 45. My trust is in the Lord. Ps. xi. 46. Not unto us, Almighty Lord [God]. Ps. cxv. 47. O God of glory, God of grace. Ps. xc. 48. O God of love, how blest are they. Ps. xxxvii. 49. O God of love, my God Thou art. Ps. lxiii. 50. O God of truth and grace. Ps. xviii. 51. O had I, my Saviour, the wings of a dove. Ps. lv. 52. O how blest the congregation. Ps. lxxxix. 53. O how safe and [how] happy he. Ps. xci. 54. O plead my cause, my Saviour plead. Ps. xxxv. 55. O praise the Lord, 'tis sweet to raise. Ps. cxlvii. 56. O praise the Lord; ye nations, pour. Ps. cxvii. 57. O praise ye the Lord With heart, &c. Ps. cxlix. 58. O that the Lord's salvation. Ps. xiv. 59. O Thou Whom thoughtless men condemn. Ps. xxxvi. 60. Of every earthly stay bereft. Ps. lxxiv. 61. Our hearts shall praise Thee, God of love. Ps. cxxxviii. 62. Pilgrims here on earth and strangers. Ps. xvi. 63. Praise for Thee, Lord, in Zion waits. Ps. lxv. 64. Praise to God on high be given. Ps. cxxxiv. 65. Praise ye the Lord, His servants, raise. Ps. cxiii. 66. Redeem'd from guilt, redeem'd from fears. Ps. cxvi. 67. Save me by Thy glorious name. Ps. liv. 68. Shout, ye people, clap your hands. Ps. xlvii. 69. Sing to the Lord our might. Ps. lxxxi. 70. Strangers and pilgrims here below. Ps. cix. 71. Sweet is the solemn voice that calls. Ps. cxxii. 72. The Church of God below. Ps. lxxxvii. 73. The Lord is King, let earth be glad. Ps. xcvii. 74. The Lord is on His throne. Ps. xciii. 75. The Lord is our Refuge, the Lord is our Guide. Ps. xlvii. 76. The mercies of my God and King. Ps. lxxxix. 77. The Lord Who died on earth for men. Ps. xxi. 78. Tis a pleasant thing to fee. Ps. cxxxiii. 79. Thy promise, Lord, is perfect peace. Ps. iii. 80. Unto Thee I lift mine [my] eyes. Ps. cxxiii. 81. Whom shall [should] we love like Thee? Ps. xviii. Lyte's versions of the Psalms are criticised where their sadness, tenderness and beauty are set forth. His hymns in the Poems are characterized by the same features, and rarely swell out into joy and gladness. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Lyte, Henry Francis, p. 706, i. Additional versions of Psalms are in common use:-- 1. Lord, a thousand foes surround us. Psalms lix. 2. Praise, Lord, for Thee in Zion waits. Psalms lxv. 3. The Christian like his Lord of old. Psalms cxl. 4. The Lord of all my Shepherd is. Psalms xxiii. 5. The Lord of heaven to earth is come. Psalms xcviii. 6. Thy mercy, Lord, the sinner's hope. Psalms xxxvi. 7. To Thee, O Lord, in deep distress. Psalms cxlii. Sometimes given as "To God I turned in wild distress." 8. Uphold me, Lord, too prone to stray. Psalms i. 9. When Jesus to our [my] rescue came. Psalms cxxvi. These versions appeared in the 1st edition of Lyte's Spirit of the Psalms, 1834. It must be noted that the texts of the 1834, the 1836, and the 3rd ed., 1858, vary considerably, but Lyte was not responsible for the alterations and omissions in the last, which was edited by another hand for use at St. Mark's, Torquay. Lyte's version of Psalms xxix., "Glory and praise to Jehovah on high" (p. 706, ii., 22), first appeared in his Poems, 1st ed., 1833, p. 25. Read also No. 39 as "Lord, I look for all to Thee." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

John Newton

1725 - 1807 Author of "Rejoice, Believer, in the Lord" in Trinity Psalter Hymnal John Newton (b. London, England, 1725; d. London, 1807) was born into a Christian home, but his godly mother died when he was seven, and he joined his father at sea when he was eleven. His licentious and tumul­tuous sailing life included a flogging for attempted desertion from the Royal Navy and captivity by a slave trader in West Africa. After his escape he himself became the captain of a slave ship. Several factors contributed to Newton's conversion: a near-drowning in 1748, the piety of his friend Mary Catlett, (whom he married in 1750), and his reading of Thomas à Kempis' Imitation of Christ. In 1754 he gave up the slave trade and, in association with William Wilberforce, eventually became an ardent abolitionist. After becoming a tide-surveyor in Liverpool, England, Newton came under the influence of George Whitefield and John and Charles Wesley and began to study for the ministry. He was ordained in the Church of England and served in Olney (1764-1780) and St. Mary Woolnoth, London (1780-1807). His legacy to the Christian church includes his hymns as well as his collaboration with William Cowper (PHH 434) in publishing Olney Hymns (1779), to which Newton contributed 280 hymns, including “Amazing Grace.” Bert Polman ================== Newton, John, who was born in London, July 24, 1725, and died there Dec. 21, 1807, occupied an unique position among the founders of the Evangelical School, due as much to the romance of his young life and the striking history of his conversion, as to his force of character. His mother, a pious Dissenter, stored his childish mind with Scripture, but died when he was seven years old. At the age of eleven, after two years' schooling, during which he learned the rudiments of Latin, he went to sea with his father. His life at sea teems with wonderful escapes, vivid dreams, and sailor recklessness. He grew into an abandoned and godless sailor. The religious fits of his boyhood changed into settled infidelity, through the study of Shaftesbury and the instruction of one of his comrades. Disappointing repeatedly the plans of his father, he was flogged as a deserter from the navy, and for fifteen months lived, half-starved and ill-treated, in abject degradation under a slave-dealer in Africa. The one restraining influence of his life was his faithful love for his future wife, Mary Catlett, formed when he was seventeen, and she only in her fourteenth year. A chance reading of Thomas à Kempis sowed the seed of his conversion; which quickened under the awful contemplations of a night spent in steering a water-logged vessel in the face of apparent death (1748). He was then twenty-three. The six following years, during which he commanded a slave ship, matured his Christian belief. Nine years more, spent chiefly at Liverpool, in intercourse with Whitefield, Wesley, and Nonconformists, in the study of Hebrew and Greek, in exercises of devotion and occasional preaching among the Dissenters, elapsed before his ordination to the curacy of Olney, Bucks (1764). The Olney period was the most fruitful of his life. His zeal in pastoral visiting, preaching and prayer-meetings was unwearied. He formed his lifelong friendship with Cowper, and became the spiritual father of Scott the commentator. At Olney his best works—-Omicron's Letters (1774); Olney Hymns (1779); Cardiphonia, written from Olney, though published 1781—were composed. As rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, London, in the centre of the Evangelical movement (1780-1807) his zeal was as ardent as before. In 1805, when no longer able to read his text, his reply when pressed to discontinue preaching, was, "What, shall the old African blasphemer stop while he can speak!" The story of his sins and his conversion, published by himself, and the subject of lifelong allusion, was the base of his influence; but it would have been little but for the vigour of his mind (shown even in Africa by his reading Euclid drawing its figures on the sand), his warm heart, candour, tolerance, and piety. These qualities gained him the friendship of Hannah More, Cecil, Wilberforce, and others; and his renown as a guide in experimental religion made him the centre of a host of inquirers, with whom he maintained patient, loving, and generally judicious correspondence, of which a monument remains in the often beautiful letters of Cardiphonia. As a hymnwriter, Montgomery says that he was distanced by Cowper. But Lord Selborne's contrast of the "manliness" of Newton and the "tenderness" of Cowper is far juster. A comparison of the hymns of both in The Book of Praise will show no great inequality between them. Amid much that is bald, tame, and matter-of-fact, his rich acquaintance with Scripture, knowledge of the heart, directness and force, and a certain sailor imagination, tell strongly. The one splendid hymn of praise, "Glorious things of thee are spoken," in the Olney collection, is his. "One there is above all others" has a depth of realizing love, sustained excellence of expression, and ease of development. "How sweet the name of Jesus sounds" is in Scriptural richness superior, and in structure, cadence, and almost tenderness, equal to Cowper's "Oh! for a closer walk with God." The most characteristic hymns are those which depict in the language of intense humiliation his mourning for the abiding sins of his regenerate life, and the sense of the withdrawal of God's face, coincident with the never-failing conviction of acceptance in The Beloved. The feeling may be seen in the speeches, writings, and diaries of his whole life. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] A large number of Newton's hymns have some personal history connected with them, or were associated with circumstances of importance. These are annotated under their respective first lines. Of the rest, the known history of which is confined to the fact that they appeared in the Olney Hymns, 1779, the following are in common use:— 1. Be still, my heart, these anxious cares. Conflict. 2. Begone, unbelief, my Saviour is near. Trust. 3. By the poor widow's oil and meal. Providence. 4. Chief Shepherd of Thy chosen sheep. On behalf of Ministers. 5. Darkness overspreads us here. Hope. 6. Does the Gospel-word proclaim. Rest in Christ. 7. Fix my heart and eyes on Thine. True Happiness. 8. From Egypt lately freed. The Pilgrim's Song. 9. He Who on earth as man was Known. Christ the Rock. 10. How blest are they to whom the Lord. Gospel Privileges. 11. How blest the righteous are. Death of the Righteous. 12. How lost was my [our] condition. Christ the Physician. 13. How tedious and tasteless the hours. Fellowship with Christ. 14. How welcome to the saints [soul] when pressed. Sunday. 15. Hungry, and faint, and poor. Before Sermon. 16. In mercy, not in wrath, rebuke. Pleading for Mercy. 17. In themselves, as weak as worms. Power of Prayer. 18. Incarnate God, the soul that knows. The Believer's Safety. 19. Jesus, Who bought us with His blood. The God of Israel. "Teach us, 0 Lord, aright to plead," is from this hymn. 20. Joy is a [the] fruit that will not grow. Joy. 21. Let hearts and tongues unite. Close of the Year. From this "Now, through another year," is taken. 22. Let us adore the grace that seeks. New Year. 23. Mary to her [the] Saviour's tomb. Easter. 24. Mercy, 0 Thou Son of David. Blind Bartimeus. 25. My harp untun'd and laid aside. Hoping for a Revival. From this "While I to grief my soul gave way" is taken. 26. Nay, I cannot let thee go. Prayer. Sometimes, "Lord, I cannot let Thee go." 27. Now may He Who from the dead. After Sermon. 28. 0 happy they who know the Lord, With whom He deigns to dwell. Gospel Privilege. 29. O Lord, how vile am I. Lent. 30. On man in His own Image made. Adam. 31. 0 speak that gracious word again. Peace through Pardon. 32. Our Lord, Who knows full well. The Importunate Widow. Sometimes altered to "Jesus, Who knows full well," and again, "The Lord, Who truly knows." 33. Physician of my sin-sick soul. Lent. 34. Pleasing spring again is here. Spring. 35. Poor, weak, and worthless, though I am. Jesus the Friend. 36. Prepare a thankful song. Praise to Jesus. 37. Refreshed by the bread and wine. Holy Communion. Sometimes given as "Refreshed by sacred bread and wine." 38. Rejoice, believer, in the Lord. Sometimes “Let us rejoice in Christ the Lord." Perseverance. 39. Salvation, what a glorious plan. Salvation. 40. Saviour, shine and cheer my soul. Trust in Jesus. The cento "Once I thought my mountain strong," is from this hymn. 41. Saviour, visit Thy plantation. Prayer for the Church. 42. See another year [week] is gone. Uncertainty of Life. 43. See the corn again in ear. Harvest. 44. Sinner, art thou still secure? Preparation for the Future. 45. Sinners, hear the [thy] Saviour's call. Invitation. 46. Sovereign grace has power alone. The two Malefactors. 47. Stop, poor sinner, stop and think. Caution and Alarm. 48. Sweeter sounds than music knows. Christmas. 49. Sweet was the time when first I felt. Joy in Believing. 50. Ten thousand talents once I owed. Forgiveness and Peace. 51. The grass and flowers, which clothe the field. Hay-time. 52. The peace which God alone reveals. Close of Service. 53. Thy promise, Lord, and Thy command. Before Sermon. 54. Time, by moments, steals away. The New Year. 55. To Thee our wants are known. Close of Divine Service. 56. We seek a rest beyond the skies. Heaven anticipated. 57. When any turn from Zion's way. Jesus only. 58. When Israel, by divine command. God, the Guide and Sustainer of Life. 59. With Israel's God who can compare? After Sermon. 60. Yes, since God Himself has said it. Confidence. 61. Zion, the city of our God. Journeying Zionward. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================= Newton, J., p. 803, i. Another hymn in common use from the Olney Hymns, 1779, is "Let me dwell on Golgotha" (Holy Communion). --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ----- John Newton was born in London, July 24, 1725. His mother died when he was seven years old. In his eleventh year he accompanied his father, a sea captain, on a voyage. For several years his life was one of dissipation and crime. He was disgraced while in the navy. Afterwards he engaged in the slave trade. Returning to England in 1748, the vessel was nearly wrecked in a storm. This peril forced solemn reflection upon him, and from that time he was a changed man. It was six years, however, before he relinquished the slave trade, which was not then regarded as an unlawful occupation. But in 1754, he gave up sea-faring life, and holding some favourable civil position, began also religious work. In 1764, in his thirty-ninth year, he entered upon a regular ministry as the Curate of Olney. In this position he had intimate intercourse with Cowper, and with him produced the "Olney Hymns." In 1779, Newton became Rector of S. Mary Woolnoth, in London, in which position he became more widely known. It was here he died, Dec. 21, 1807, His published works are quite numerous, consisting of sermons, letters, devotional aids, and hymns. He calls his hymns "The fruit and expression of his own experience." --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A. 1872 See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church =======================

Nahum Tate

1652 - 1715 Person Name: Nahum Tate, 1652-1715 Author of "While Shepherds Watched Their Flocks" in The Abingdon Song Book Nahum Tate was born in Dublin and graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, B.A. 1672. He lacked great talent but wrote much for the stage, adapting other men's work, really successful only in a version of King Lear. Although he collaborated with Dryden on several occasions, he was never fully in step with the intellectual life of his times, and spent most of his life in a futile pursuit of popular favor. Nonetheless, he was appointed poet laureate in 1692 and royal historiographer in 1702. He is now known only for the New Version of the Psalms of David, 1696, which he produced in collaboration with Nicholas Brady. Poverty stricken throughout much of his life, he died in the Mint at Southwark, where he had taken refuge from his creditors, on August 12, 1715. --The Hymnal 1940 Companion See also in: Hymn Writers of the Church

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