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Chas. H. Gabriel

1856 - 1932 Person Name: Charles H. Gabriel Hymnal Number: 222 Author of "I Stand Amazed" in Yes, Lord! Pseudonyms: C. D. Emerson, Charlotte G. Homer, S. B. Jackson, A. W. Lawrence, Jennie Ree ============= For the first seventeen years of his life Charles Hutchinson Gabriel (b. Wilton, IA, 1856; d. Los Angeles, CA, 1932) lived on an Iowa farm, where friends and neighbors often gathered to sing. Gabriel accompanied them on the family reed organ he had taught himself to play. At the age of sixteen he began teaching singing in schools (following in his father's footsteps) and soon was acclaimed as a fine teacher and composer. He moved to California in 1887 and served as Sunday school music director at the Grace Methodist Church in San Francisco. After moving to Chicago in 1892, Gabriel edited numerous collections of anthems, cantatas, and a large number of songbooks for the Homer Rodeheaver, Hope, and E. O. Excell publishing companies. He composed hundreds of tunes and texts, at times using pseudonyms such as Charlotte G. Homer. The total number of his compositions is estimated at about seven thousand. Gabriel's gospel songs became widely circulated through the Billy Sunday­-Homer Rodeheaver urban crusades. Bert Polman

Dorothy Frances Gurney

1858 - 1932 Person Name: Dorothy Gurney Hymnal Number: 226 Author of "O Perfect Love" in Yes, Lord! Blomfield, Dorothy F. , was born at 3 Finsbury Circus, Oct. 4, 1858. Miss Blomfield is the eldest daughter of the late Rev. F. G. Blomfield, sometime Rector of St. Andrew's Undershaft, London, and granddaughter of the late Dr. Blomfield, Bishop of London. Her very beautiful hymn for Holy Matrimony, “O perfect Love, all human thought transcending," was written for her sister's marriage in 1883, and was intended to be sung to Strength and Stay, in Hymns Ancient & Modern, No. 12. Subsequently it was set as an anthem by J. Barnby for the marriage of the Duke of Fife with the Princess Louise of Wales, on July 27, 1889. In 1889 it was included in the Supplemental Hymns to Hymns Ancient & Modern, and in 1890 in the Hymnal Companion. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) =============== Gurney, Dorothy Frances, née Blomfield, p. 1553, ii. Married to Mr. Gerald Gurney. Mrs. Gurney's personal account of her hymn, "O perfect Love," &c, is given in detail in the Rev. J. Brownlie's Hymns and Hymn Writers of The Church Hymnary, 1899, p. 248. Her hymn is given in most hymn books published since 1889. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Elizabeth Cecilia Clephane

1830 - 1869 Person Name: Elizabeth C. Clephane Hymnal Number: 241 Author of "Beneath the Cross of Jesus" in Yes, Lord! Clephane, Elizabeth Cecilia, third daughter of Andrew Clephane, Sheriff of Fife, was born at Edinburgh, June 18, 1830, and died at Bridgend House, near Melrose, Feb. 19, 1869. Her hymns appeared, almost all for the first time, in the Family Treasury, under the general title of Breathings on the Border. In publishing the first of these in the Treasury, the late Rev. W. Arnot, of Edinburgh, then editor, thus introduced them:— "These lines express the experiences, the hopes, and the longings of a young Christian lately released. Written on the very edge of this life, with the better land fully, in the view of faith, they seem to us footsteps printed on the sands of Time, where these sands touch the ocean of Eternity. These footprints of one whom the Good Shepherd led through the wilderness into rest, may, with God's blessing, contribute to comfort and direct succeeding pilgrims." The hymns, together with their dates,are:— 1. Beneath the cross of Jesus. Family Treasury, 1872, p. 398, 2. Mine eyes for ever closed. Family Treasury, 1872, p. 398. 3. Who climbeth up too nigh. Family Treasury, 1872, p. 552. 4. Into His summer garden. Family Treasury, 1873, p. 245. 5. From my dwelling midst the dead. Family Treasury, 1873, p. 365. 6. The day is drawing nearly done. Family Treasury, 1873, p. 389. 7. Life-light waneth to an end. Family Treasury, 1874, p. 595. 8. There were ninety and nine that safely lay. Family Treasury, 1874, p. 595. Of these Nos. 1 and 8 are in common use. [Rev. James Mearns, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)

John Bowring

1792 - 1872 Hymnal Number: 243 Author of "In the Cross of Christ I Glory" in Yes, Lord! James Bowring was born at Exeter, in 1792. He possessed at an early age a remarkable power of attaining languages, and acquired some reputation by his metrical translations of foreign poems. He became editor of "The Westminster Review" in 1825, and was elected to Parliament in 1835. In 1849, he was appointed Consul at Canton, and in 1854, was made Governor of Hong Kong, and received the honour of knighthood. He is the author of some important works on politics and travel, and is the recipient of several testimonials from foreign governments and societies. His poems and hymns have also added to his reputation. His "Matins and Vespers" have passed through many editions. In religion he is a Unitarian. --Annotations of the Hymnal, Charles Hutchins, M.A., 1872 ======================================= Bowring, Sir John, LL.D., a distinguished man of letters, was born at Exeter, Oct. 17, 1792. His studies extended to philology, poetry, politics, and other branches of learning, whilst as editor of the Westminster Review for some years (he received the appointment in 1825) he did considerable work as a reviewer. He held several official appointments under the Government as Commissioner to France on commercial matters (1831-5); British Consul at Hong Kong (1849); and Governor of Hong Kong (1854). He was twice Member of Parliament, and was knighted in 1854. He died Nov. 23rd, 1872. His published works are very numerous, and display an astonishing acquaintance with various languages. Those specially bearing on poetry include:— (1) Russian Anthology, with Biographical and Critical notices of the Poets of Russia, 1821; (2) Specimens of the Russian Poets, 1823; (3) Ancient Poetry and Romance of Spain, 1824; (4) Batavian Anthology, or Specimens of Dutch Poets, 1824; (5) Servian Popular Poetry, 1821; (6) Specimens of Polish Poets, 1827; (1) Poetry of the Magyars, 1830; (8) History of the Poetical Literature of Bohemia, 1832, &c. In addition to these works, which are mainly translations, Sir John Bowring wrote original verse. This was published interspersed with a few translations, as follows:— (1) Matins and Vespers with Hymns and Occasional Devotional Pieces, Lond., 1823; 2nd edition, enlarged, 1824; 3rd edition, again enlarged, 1841; and the 4th, still further enlarged, in 1851. (2) Hymns: as a Sequel to the Matins, 1825. In addition he contributed to a few Unitarian hymnals, especially that of the Rev. J. R. Beard of Manchester, 1837. In that Collection many of the hymns added to the 3rd edition of Matins, &c, 1841, were first published A selection from these, together with a biographical sketch, was published by Lady Bowring in 1873, as a Memorial Volume of Sacred Poetry. This work contains hymns from the Matins and Vespers, together with others from Periodicals, and from his manuscripts. Of his hymns a very large percentage have come into common use. A few have been adopted by almost all denominations, as, "God is love, His mercy brightens;" "How sweetly flow'd the gospel sound;" "In the Cross of Christ I glory;" "Watchman, tell us of the night;"; and others, but the greater portion are confined to the Unitarian collections of Great Britain and America, of which denomination he was a member. In addition to the more important, which are annotated under their first lines, there are also the following in common use:—- 1. Clay to clay, and dust to dust. Burial. From his Hymns, 1825, into the Hymn & Tune Book, Boston, U.S., 1868, &c. 2. Come the rich, and come the poor. Divine Worship. Contributed to Beard's Collection, 1837, No. 290, and repeated in Bowring's Matins, &c., 3rd edition, 1841. It is in a few American collections. 3. Drop the limpid waters now. Holy Baptism. From Matins and Vespers, 3rd edition, 1841, into Kennedy, 1863. 4. Earth's transitory things decay. The Memory of the Just. From his Hymns, 1825, into Beard, 1837; the American Plymouth Collection, 1855; and the Songs for the Sanctuary, N.Y., 1865, &c. 5. Father, glorify Thy name. The Father glorified. Also from Hymns, 1825, into Beard, 1837; the Hymns of the Spirit, Boston, U.S., 1864, &c. 6. Father and Friend, Thy light, Thy love. Omnipresence. From Matins and Vespers, 2nd edition, 1824, into several collections, and sometimes in an abbreviated form. 7. Father of Spirits, humbly bent before Thee. Also in Hymns, 1825, and Dr. Martineau's Hymns of Praise & Prayer, 1873. In Longfellow and Johnson's Hymns of the Spirit, Boston, U.S., 1864, it is given as, "Father of Spirits, gathered now before Thee." 8. From all evil, all temptation. Preservation implored. Contributed to Beard's Collection, 1837. 9. From the recesses of a lowly spirit. Prayer of trust. From Matins and Vespers, 1st edition, 1823, into several American collections. 10. Gather up, 0 earth, thy dead. Published in his Matins & Vespers, 3rd ed., 1841, in 3 stanzas of 8 lines and repeated, slightly altered, in Kennedy, 1863, No. 753. 11. Gently the shades of night descends Evening. A cento from his poem on "Sunday Evening," in the Matins, &c, 1st edition, 1823, p. 6. It is given in the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864; the Boston Hymn & Tune Book, 1868, and other collections. 12. How dark, how desolate. Hope. 1st published in his Matins, &c, 1823, p. 246. In Dr. Martineau's Hymns of Praise & Prayer, 1873, it is No. 515. 13. How shall we praise Thee, Lord of Light! Evening. A cento from the same poem as No. 7 above. It is given in the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and other American collections. 14. Lead us with Thy gentle sway. Divine Guidance desired. Hymns, 1825, into Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and others. 15. Lord, in heaven, Thy dwelling-place. Praise. Contributed to Beard's Collection, 1837, No. 70, repeated in the author's Matins, &c, 3rd edition 1841, p. 235, and given in a few American collections. In the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, it is altered to "Lord of every time and place." 16. 0 let my [thy] trembling soul be still. Resignation. From the 1st edition of the Matins, &c, 1823, p. 251, in 3 stanzas of 6 lines, into Beard's Collection, 1837; the Hymns of the Spirit, 1864, and others. It is sometimes given as, "0 let thy," &c. 17. 0, sweet it is to feel and know. Monday Morning. A poem in 16 stanzas of 4 lines, given in his Matins, &c, 1823, p. 60. In 1837 stanzas i.-iii. were given in Beard's Collection as No. 448, and entitled "God near in sorrow." In the 3rd edition of the Matins, &c, 1841, this cento was repeated (p. 245), with the same title, notwithstanding the full poem was in the same book. 18. On the dust I'm doomed to sleep. Resurrection. Appeared in his Matins, &c, 1st edition, 1823, p. 252, in 2 stanzas of 8 lines. In the 2nd edition, 1824, p. 232, it was altered to "In the dust," &c. This was repeated in 1841. In some hymnals it reads:— 19. The heavenly spheres to Thee, 0 God. Evening. This "Hymn to the Deity" appeared in the 2nd edition of his Matins, &c, 1824, pp. 235-6, in 4 stanzas of 4 double lines. It is also in the 3rd edition, 1841; the Boston Hymns of the Spirit, 1864 and other American collections. 20. When before Thy throne we kneel. Divine Worship. From his Hymns, 1825, into Beard's Collection, 1837, No. 93; the Boston Hymn & Tune Book, 1868, No. 21, and others. 21. Where is thy sting, 0 death! Death. Also from the Hymns, 1825, into the same collections as No. 20 above. It will be noted that Beard's Collection, 1837, is frequently named above. The full title of that hymnal is— A Collection of Hymns for Public and Private Worship. Compiled by John R. Board, Lond., John Green, 1837. The Rev. John Relly Beard was an Unitarian Minister in Manchester, and the collection is dedicated "To the Manchester Meeting of Ministers." It contained a large number of original hymns. Bowring contributed 82, of which 33 were published therein for the first time. Some of his hymns are of great merit, and most of them are characterised by great earnestness and deep devotion. -- John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================== Bowring, Sir John, p. 166, i. In the article on Bowring the hymns numbered therein as 4 and 20 are stated to have appeared in his Hymns, 1825, but in error. The earliest date to which we can positively trace them is Beard's Collection, 1837. From the Hymns, 1825, we find, however, that the following are in modern hymnals:— 1. Our God is nigh. Divine Presence. 2. 'Tis not the gift; but 'tis the spirit. Outward and Inward Virtue. 3. When the storms of sorrow gather. God our Guide. From the various editions of his Matins and Vespers additional hymns arc also in modern use:— 4. If all our hopes and all our fears. Heaven Anticipated. (1823.) 5. In Thy courts let peace be found. Public Worship. (1841.) 6. The offerings to Thy throne which rise. Heart Worship. (1824.) 7. Who shall roll away the stone? Easter. In Beard's Collection, 1837, and Matins & Vespers, 1841. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

George Bennard

1873 - 1958 Hymnal Number: 246 Author of "The Old Rugged Cross" in Yes, Lord! George Bennard (1873-1958) was born in Youngstown, OH. When he was a child the family moved to Albia, Iowa. He served with the Salvation Army in Iowa for several years before he was ordained in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His hymn "Speak, my Lord" appears in Triumphant Service Songs (Chicago: Rodeheaver Hall-Mack Co., 1934). He wrote words and tune for his best known hymn "The Old Rugged Cross" in 1913. Mary Louise VanDyke

William Cowper

1731 - 1800 Hymnal Number: 249 Author of "There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood" in Yes, Lord! William Cowper (pronounced "Cooper"; b. Berkampstead, Hertfordshire, England, 1731; d. East Dereham, Norfolk, England, 1800) is regarded as one of the best early Romantic poets. To biographers he is also known as "mad Cowper." His literary talents produced some of the finest English hymn texts, but his chronic depression accounts for the somber tone of many of those texts. Educated to become an attorney, Cowper was called to the bar in 1754 but never practiced law. In 1763 he had the opportunity to become a clerk for the House of Lords, but the dread of the required public examination triggered his tendency to depression, and he attempted suicide. His subsequent hospitalization and friendship with Morley and Mary Unwin provided emotional stability, but the periods of severe depression returned. His depression was deepened by a religious bent, which often stressed the wrath of God, and at times Cowper felt that God had predestined him to damnation. For the last two decades of his life Cowper lived in Olney, where John Newton became his pastor. There he assisted Newton in his pastoral duties, and the two collaborated on the important hymn collection Olney Hymns (1779), to which Cowper contributed sixty-eight hymn texts. Bert Polman ============ Cowper, William, the poet. The leading events in the life of Cowper are: born in his father's rectory, Berkhampstead, Nov. 26, 1731; educated at Westminster; called to the Bar, 1754; madness, 1763; residence at Huntingdon, 1765; removal to Olney, 1768; to Weston, 1786; to East Dereham, 1795; death there, April 25, 1800. The simple life of Cowper, marked chiefly by its innocent recreations and tender friendships, was in reality a tragedy. His mother, whom he commemorated in the exquisite "Lines on her picture," a vivid delineation of his childhood, written in his 60th year, died when he was six years old. At his first school he was profoundly wretched, but happier at Westminster; excelling at cricket and football, and numbering Warren Hastings, Colman, and the future model of his versification. Churchill, among his contemporaries or friends. Destined for the Bar, he was articled to a solicitor, along with Thurlow. During this period he fell in love with his cousin, Theodora Cowper, sister to Lady Hesketh, and wrote love poems to her. The marriage was forbidden by her father, but she never forgot him, and in after years secretly aided his necessities. Fits of melancholy, from which he had suffered in school days, began to increase, as he entered on life, much straitened in means after his father's death. But on the whole, it is the playful, humorous side of him that is most prominent in the nine years after his call to the Bar; spent in the society of Colman, Bonnell Thornton, and Lloyd, and in writing satires for The Connoisseur and St. James's Chronicle and halfpenny ballads. Then came the awful calamity, which destroyed all hopes of distinction, and made him a sedentary invalid, dependent on his friends. He had been nominated to the Clerkship of the Journals of the House of Lords, but the dread of appearing before them to show his fitness for the appointment overthrew his reason. He attempted his life with "laudanum, knife and cord,"—-in the third attempt nearly succeeding. The dark delusion of his life now first showed itself—a belief in his reprobation by God. But for the present, under the wise and Christian treatment of Dr. Cotton (q. v.) at St. Albans, it passed away; and the eight years that followed, of which the two first were spent at Huntingdon (where he formed his lifelong friendship with Mrs. Unwin), and the remainder at Olney in active piety among the poor, and enthusiastic devotions under the guidance of John Newton (q. v.), were full of the realisation of God's favour, and the happiest, most lucid period of his life. But the tension of long religious exercises, the nervous excitement of leading at prayer meetings, and the extreme despondence (far more than the Calvinism) of Newton, could scarcely have been a healthy atmosphere for a shy, sensitive spirit, that needed most of all the joyous sunlight of Christianity. A year after his brother's death, madness returned. Under the conviction that it was the command of God, he attempted suicide; and he then settled down into a belief in stark contradiction to his Calvinistic creed, "that the Lord, after having renewed him in holiness, had doomed him to everlasting perdition" (Southey). In its darkest form his affliction lasted sixteen months, during which he chiefly resided in J. Newton's house, patiently tended by him and by his devoted nurse, Mrs. Unwin. Gradually he became interested in carpentering, gardening, glazing, and the tendance of some tame hares and other playmates. At the close of 1780, Mrs. Unwin suggested to him some serious poetical work; and the occupation proved so congenial, that his first volume was published in 1782. To a gay episode in 1783 (his fascination by the wit of Lady Austen) his greatest poem, The Task, and also John Gilpin were owing. His other principal work was his Homer, published in 1791. The dark cloud had greatly lifted from his life when Lady Hesketh's care accomplished his removal to Weston (1786): but the loss of his dear friend William Unwin lowered it again for some months. The five years' illness of Mrs. Unwin, during which his nurse of old became his tenderly-watched patient, deepened the darkness more and more. And her death (1796) brought “fixed despair," of which his last poem, The Castaway, is the terrible memorial. Perhaps no more beautiful sentence has been written of him, than the testimony of one, who saw him after death, that with the "composure and calmness" of the face there “mingled, as it were, a holy surprise." Cowper's poetry marks the dawn of the return from the conventionality of Pope to natural expression, and the study of quiet nature. His ambition was higher than this, to be the Bard of Christianity. His great poems show no trace of his monomania, and are full of healthy piety. His fame as a poet is less than as a letter-writer: the charm of his letters is unsurpassed. Though the most considerable poet, who has written hymns, he has contributed little to the development of their structure, adopting the traditional modes of his time and Newton's severe canons. The spiritual ideas of the hymns are identical with Newton's: their highest note is peace and thankful contemplation, rather than joy: more than half of them are full of trustful or reassuring faith: ten of them are either submissive (44), self-reproachful (17, 42, 43), full of sad yearning (1, 34), questioning (9), or dark spiritual conflict (38-40). The specialty of Cowper's handling is a greater plaintiveness, tenderness, and refinement. A study of these hymns as they stood originally under the classified heads of the Olney Hymns, 1779, which in some cases probably indicate the aim of Cowper as well as the ultimate arrangement of the book by Newton, shows that one or two hymns were more the history of his conversion, than transcripts of present feelings; and the study of Newton's hymns in the same volume, full of heavy indictment against the sins of his own regenerate life, brings out the peculiar danger of his friendship to the poet: it tends also to modify considerably the conclusions of Southey as to the signs of incipient madness in Cowper's maddest hymns. Cowper's best hymns are given in The Book of Praise by Lord Selborne. Two may be selected from them; the exquisitely tender "Hark! my soul, it is the Lord" (q. v.), and "Oh, for a closer walk with God" (q. v.). Anyone who knows Mrs. Browning's noble lines on Cowper's grave will find even a deeper beauty in the latter, which is a purely English hymn of perfect structure and streamlike cadence, by connecting its sadness and its aspiration not only with the “discord on the music" and the "darkness on the glory," but the rapture of his heavenly waking beneath the "pathetic eyes” of Christ. Authorities. Lives, by Hayley; Grimshaw; Southey; Professor Goldwin Smith; Mr. Benham (attached to Globe Edition); Life of Newton, by Rev. Josiah Bull; and the Olney Hymns. The numbers of the hymns quoted refer to the Olney Hymns. [Rev. H. Leigh Bennett, M.A.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ================ Cowper, W. , p. 265, i. Other hymns are:— 1. Holy Lord God, I love Thy truth. Hatred of Sin. 2. I was a grovelling creature once. Hope and Confidence. 3. No strength of nature can suffice. Obedience through love. 4. The Lord receives His highest praise. Faith. 5. The saints should never be dismayed. Providence. All these hymns appeared in the Olney Hymns, 1779. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) ===================== Cowper, W., p. 265, i. Prof. John E. B. Mayor, of Cambridge, contributed some letters by Cowper, hitherto unpublished, together with notes thereon, to Notes and Queries, July 2 to Sept. 24, 1904. These letters are dated from Huntingdon, where he spent two years after leaving St. Alban's (see p. 265, i.), and Olney. The first is dated "Huntingdon, June 24, 1765," and the last "From Olney, July 14, 1772." They together with extracts from other letters by J. Newton (dated respectively Aug. 8, 1772, Nov. 4, 1772), two quotations without date, followed by the last in the N. & Q. series, Aug. 1773, are of intense interest to all students of Cowper, and especially to those who have given attention to the religious side of the poet's life, with its faint lights and deep and awful shadows. From the hymnological standpoint the additional information which we gather is not important, except concerning the hymns "0 for a closer walk with God," "God moves in a mysterious way," "Tis my happiness below," and "Hear what God, the Lord, hath spoken." Concerning the last three, their position in the manuscripts, and the date of the last from J. Newton in the above order, "Aug. 1773," is conclusive proof against the common belief that "God moves in a mysterious way" was written as the outpouring of Cowper's soul in gratitude for the frustration of his attempted suicide in October 1773. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

Lewis E. Jones

1865 - 1936 Hymnal Number: 254 Author of "There Is Power in the Blood" in Yes, Lord! Lewis Edgar Jones USA 1865-1936. Born in Yates City, IL, his family moved near Davenport, IA, where he lived on a farm until age 21. He went into business for awhile, and attended the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago. He was a classmate of evangelist, Billy Sunday. After graduating, he worked for the YMCA in Davenport, IA; Fort Worth, TX (1915, as general secretary); and Santa Barbara, CA (1925 as general secretary). Hymn writing was his avocation, and he wrote 200+, advising that many came from pastors’ sermons. He married Lora May Wright (1872-1950), and they had a daughter, Frances Ellen (1897-1982). He died in Santa Barbara, CA. John Perry

Elvina M. Hall

1820 - 1889 Hymnal Number: 257 Author of "Jesus Paid It All" in Yes, Lord! Hall, Elvina Mable, was born at Alexandria, Virginia, in 1818; and was married, first to Mr. Richard Hall, and then, in 1885, to the Rev. Thomas Myers. Her hymn, "I hear the Saviour say" (Christ All and in All), in I. D. Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, 1878, is somewhat popular in Great Britain and America. It was "written on the fly-leaf of the New Lute of Zion, in the choir of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Baltimore, in the spring of 1865." --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907)

Frances Ridley Havergal

1836 - 1879 Person Name: Frances R. Havergal Hymnal Number: 266 Author of "I Gave my Life for Thee" in Yes, Lord! Havergal, Frances Ridley, daughter of the Rev. W. H. Havergal, was born at Astley, Worcestershire, Dec. 14, 1836. Five years later her father removed to the Rectory of St. Nicholas, Worcester. In August, 1850, she entered Mrs. Teed's school, whose influence over her was most beneficial. In the following year she says, "I committed my soul to the Saviour, and earth and heaven seemed brighter from that moment." A short sojourn in Germany followed, and on her return she was confirmed in Worcester Cathedral, July 17, 1853. In 1860 she left Worcester on her father resigning the Rectory of St. Nicholas, and resided at different periods in Leamington, and at Caswall Bay, Swansea, broken by visits to Switzerland, Scotland, and North Wales. She died at Caswell Bay, Swansea, June 3, 1879. Miss Havergal's scholastic acquirements were extensive, embracing several modern languages, together with Greek and Hebrew. She does not occupy, and did not claim for herself, a prominent place as a poet, but by her distinct individuality she carved out a niche which she alone could fill. Simply and sweetly she sang the love of God, and His way of salvation. To this end, and for this object, her whole life and all her powers were consecrated. She lives and speaks in every line of her poetry. Her poems are permeated with the fragrance of her passionate love of Jesus. Her religious views and theological bias are distinctly set forth in her poems, and may be described as mildly Calvinistic, without the severe dogmatic tenet of reprobation. The burden of her writings is a free and full salvation, through the Redeemer's merits, for every sinner who will receive it, and her life was devoted to the proclamation of this truth by personal labours, literary efforts, and earnest interest in Foreign Missions. [Rev. James Davidson, B.A.] Miss Havergal's hymns were frequently printed by J. & R. Parlane as leaflets, and by Caswell & Co. as ornamental cards. They were gathered together from time to time and published in her works as follows:— (1) Ministry of Song, 1869; (2) Twelve Sacred Songs for Little Singers, 1870; (3) Under the Surface, 1874; (4) Loyal Responses, 1878; (5) Life Mosaic, 1879; (6) Life Chords, 1880; (7) Life Echoes, 1883. About 15 of the more important of Miss Havergal's hymns, including "Golden harps are sounding," "I gave my life for thee," "Jesus, Master, Whose I am," "Lord, speak to me," "O Master, at Thy feet," "Take my life and let it be," "Tell it out among the heathen," &c, are annotated under their respective first lines. The rest, which are in common use, number nearly 50. These we give, together with dates and places of composition, from the Havergal mss. [manuscript], and the works in which they were published. Those, and they are many, which were printed in Parlane's Series of Leaflets are distinguished as (P., 1872, &c), and those in Caswell’s series (C., 1873, &c). 1. A happy New Year! Even such may it be. New Year. From Under the Surface, 1874. 2. Certainly I will be with thee. Birthday. Sept. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 3. Church of God, beloved and chosen. Sanctified in Christ Jesus, 1873. (P. 1873.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 4. God Almighty, King of nations. Sovereignty of God. 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 5. God doth not bid thee wait. God faithful to His promises. Oct. 22, 1868, at Oakhampton. (P. 1869.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 6. God of heaven, hear our singing. A Child's hymn for Missions. Oct. 22, 1869, at Leamington. Published in her Twelve Sacred Songs for Little Singers, 1870, and her Life Chords, 1880. 7. God will take care of you, All through the day. The Good Shepherd. In Mrs. Brock's Children's Hymn Book, 1881. 8. God's reiterated all. New Year. 1873, at Winterdyne. (C. 1873.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 9. Have you not a word for Jesus? Boldness for the Truth. Nov. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 10. He hath spoken in the darkness. Voice of God in sorrow. June 10,1869, at Neuhausen. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and in Life Mosaic, 1879. 11. Hear the Father's ancient promise. Promise of the Holy Spirit. Aug. 1870. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 12. Holy and Infinite! Viewless, Eternal. Infinity of God. 1872. Published in Under the Surf ace, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 13. Holy brethren, called and chosen. Election a motive for Earnestness. 1872. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876. 14. I am trusting Thee, Lord Jesus. Faith. Sept. 1874, at Ormont Dessona. (P. 1874.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Chords, 1880. Miss Havergal’s tune, Urbane (Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1048), was composed for this hymn. The hymn was the author's "own favourite," and was found in her pocket Bible after her death. 15. I bring my sins to Thee. Besting all on Jesus. June, 1870. (P. 1870.) Printed in the Sunday Magazine, 1870, and Home Words, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Chords, 1880. 16. I could not do without Thee. Jesus All in All. May 7, 1873. (P. 1873.) Printed in Home Words, 1873, and published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 17. In full and glad surrender. Confirmation. Miss Havergal's sister says this hymn was “The epitome of her [Miss F. R. H.'s] life and the focus of its sunshine." It is a beautiful hymn of personal consecration to God at all times. 18. In the evening there is weeping. Sorrow followed by Joy. June 19, 1869, at the Hotel Jungfraublick, Interlaken. "It rained all day, except a very bright interval before dinner. Curious long soft white clouds went slowly creeping along the Scheinige Platte; I wrote “Evening Tears and Morning Songs” (Marg. reading of Ps. xxx. 5.)" (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874. 19. Increase our faith, beloved Lord. Increase of Faith desired. In Loyal Responses, 1878, in 11 stanzas of 4 lines, on St. Luke xvii. 5. It is usually given in an abridged form. 20. Is it for me, dear Saviour? Heaven anticipated. Nov. 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 21. Israel of God, awaken. Christ our Righteousness. May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 22. Jehovah's covenant shall endure. The Divine Covenant, 1872. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876. 23 Jesus, blessed Saviour. New Year, Nov. 25, 1872, at Leamington. (P. 1873.) Printed in the Dayspring Magazine, Jan. 1873, and published in Life Chords, 1880. 24. Jesus only! In the shadow. Jesus All in All. Dec. 4, 1870, at Pyrmont Villa. (P. & C. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and in Life Mosaic, 1879. 25. Joined to Christ by [in] mystic union. The Church the Body of Christ. May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, Life Mosaic, 1879. 26. Just when Thou wilt, 0 Master, call. Resignation. In Loyal Responses, 1878, in 5 stanzas of 4 lines, and Whiting's Hymns for the Church Catholic, 1882. 27. King Eternal and Immortal. God Eternal. Written at Perry Villa, Perry Barr, Feb. 11, 1871, and Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace & Glory, 1876; Under the Surface, 1874 ; and Life Mosaic, 1879. 28. Light after darkness, Gain after loss. Peace in Jesus, and the Divine Reward. In Sankey's Sacred Songs and Solos, from her Life Mosaic, 1879. 29. Like a river glorious, Is God's perfect Peace. Peace. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, in 3 st. of 8 1., with the chorus, "Stayed upon Jehovah." In several collections. 30. Master, speak! Thy servant heareth. Fellowship with and Assistance from Christ desired. Sunday evening, May 19, 1867, at Weston-super-Mare. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and L. Mosaic, 1879. It is very popular. 31. New mercies, new blessings, new light on thy way. New Life in Christ. 1874, at Winterdyne. (C. 1874.) Published in Under His Shadow, 1879, Life Chords, 1880. 32. Not your own, but His ye are. Missions. Jan. 21, 1867. (C. 1867.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869; Life Mosaic, 1879; and the Hymnal for Church Missions, 1884. 33. Now let us sing the angels' song. Christmas. In her Life Mosaic, 1879; and W. B. Stevenson's School Hymnal, 1880. 34. Now the daylight goes away. Evening. Oct. 17, 1869, at Leamington. Published in Songs for Little Singers, 1870, and Life Chords, 1880. It originally read, " Now the light has gone away." 35. Now the sowing and the weeping. Sorrow followed by Joy. Jan. 4, 1870, at Leamington. Printed in Sunday at Home, 1870 ; and published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 36. 0 Glorious God and King. Praise to the Father, Feb. 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 37. 0 Saviour, precious [holy] Saviour. Christ worshipped by the Church. Nov. 1870, at Leamington. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 38. O thou chosen Church of Jesus. Election. April 6, 1871. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 39. O what everlasting blessings God outpoureth on His own. Salvation everlasting. Aug. 12, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 40. Our Father, our Father, Who dwellest in light. The blessing of the Father desired. May 14, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Miss Havergal's tune, Tertius, was composed for this hymn. 41. Our Saviour and our King. Presentation of the Church to the Father. (Heb. ii. 13.) May, 1871, at Perry Barr. (P. 1871.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and L. Mosaic, 1879. 42. Precious, precious blood of Jesus. The precious Blood. Sept. 1874, at Ormont Dessons. (C.) Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, and Life Chords, 1880. 43. Sing, O heavens, the Lord hath done it. Redemption. In her Life Mosaic, 1879, and the Universal Hymn Book, 1885. 44. Sit down beneath His shadow. Holy Communion. Nov. 27, 1870, at Leamington. (P. 1870.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 45. Sovereign Lord and gracious Master. Grace consummated in Glory. Oct. 22, 1871. (P. 1872.) Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 46. Standing at the portal of the opening year. New Year. Jan. 4, 1873. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Chords, 1880. 47. To Thee, 0 Comforter divine. Praise to the Holy Spirit. Aug. 11, 1872, at Perry Barr. Published in Under the Surface 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Miss Havergal's tune, Tryphosa, was written for this hymn. 48. True-hearted, whole-hearted, faithful and loyal. Faithfulness to the Saviour. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, and the Universal Hymn Book, 1885. 49. What know we, Holy God, of Thee? God's Spirituality, 1872. Published in Under the Surface, 1874, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 50. Who is on the Lord's side? Home Missions. Oct. 13, 1877. Published in Loyal Responses, 1878, andLife Chords, 1880. 51. With quivering heart and trembling will. Resignation. July, 10, 1866, at Luccombe Rectory. (P. 1866.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. 52. Will ye not come to Him for life? The Gospel Invitation. 1873. Published in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1876. 53. Worthy of all adoration. Praise to Jesus as the Lamb upon the throne. Feb. 26 1867, at Oakhampton. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1874. It is pt. iii. of the "Threefold Praise," and was suggested by the "Worthy is the Lamb," the "Hallelujah" and "Amen" choruses in Handel's Messiah. 54. Ye who hear the blessed call. The Invitation of the Spirit and the Bride. March, 1869, at Leamington. (P. 1869.) Published in Ministry of Song, 1869, and Life Mosaic, 1879. Suggested by, and written for, the Young Men's Christian Association. 55. Yes, He knows the way is dreary. Encouragement. 1867. Published in Ministry of Song, 1869. Most of these hymns are given in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1872]and 1876, his Appendix, 1874, and the Musical edition, 1880, and many of them are also in several other hymnbooks, including Hymns Ancient & Modern, Thring, Church Hymns, Hymnal Companion, &c, and some of the leading American collections. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907) ============================== Havergal, Frances Ridley, p. 496, i. Miss Havergal's Poetical Works were published in 2 vols. in 1884 (Lond., J. Nisbet); and the hymns therein are accompanied by notes. From these volumes, and the Havergal manuscript, we gather the following facts concerning additional hymns in common use: 1. In God's great field of labour. Work for Christ. Written Feb. 27, 1867, and published in her Ministry of Song, I860, and later works. In Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory, 1872, it begins with stanza ii., "Sing to the little children." “The poem expresses her own life-ministry of song, and relates true incidents" in that life. [Hav. mss.] 2. Only a mortal's power. Consecration of Self to Christ. Published in her Loyal Responses, 1878, in 7 stanzas of 4 lines, and headed "Only.” In Common Praise, 1879, stanzas ii.-vi., are given for Confirmation as, "Only one heart to give." 3. Through the yesterday of ages. Jesus always the same. Written at Leamington, Nov. 1876, and published in her Loyal Responses, 1878. 4. What hast Thou done for me, 0 Thou my mighty Friend. Good Friday. Written at Leamington, Jan. 1877, and pub. in Loyal Responses, 1878. 5. Yes, He knows the way is dreary, p. 498, i. 55. This hymn was written at Shareshill Parsonage, Nov. 17, 1865, and first printed as one of Parlane's leaflets; then in Lyra Britannica, 1867; and later, in several of her books. It was "suggested by a letter from her niece, A. M. S., at school, and written to console her when weary, lonely, and the only absentee at the rejoicings for her brother J. H. S.'s coming of age." [Hav. mss.] --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, Appendix, Part II (1907) =================== Havergal, Frances R., pp. 426, ii., 1569, ii. During the past fifteen years Miss Havergal's hymns have been in great request by compilers of hymnals for Missions and Conventions. In addition to the large number already annotated in this Dictionary, the following are also in common use:— 1. Begin at once! in the pleasant days. [Temperance.] From her Poetical Works, vol. i., p. 303, into The Sunday School Hymnary, 1905. In her Poetical Works. It is given as a "Band of Hope Song," and dated "May, 1876." 2. God in heaven, hear our singing. An altered form of her "God of heaven, hear our singing," p. 497, i. 6. 3. Holy Father, Thou hast spoken. [Holy Spirit desired.] Written May 5, 1876. P. Works, 1874, ii., p. 261. 4. I love. I love my Master. [Jesus the object of love.] Written at Fins, Hants., July 16, 1876. In her Loyal Responses, 1878, and her Poetical Works, 18S4, ii., p. 274. 5. I love to feel that I am taught. [Love of Divine Teaching.] Written at Morecambe Bay, Aug., 1867, for her Ministry of Song, 1869. Included in her Poetical Works, 1884, i., p. 36. 6. Jesus, Thy life is mine. [Union with Christ.] Written June 2, 1876. Poetical Works, 1884, ii., p. 268. 7. Looking unto Jesus, Never need we yield. [Jesus, All in All.] Dated 1876. P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 253. 8. Master, how shall I bless Thy Name! [Holy Service.] Written at Whitby, Sept. 27, 1875. A long hymn of 17 stanzas of 6 lines. P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 280. 9. Resting on the faithfulness. [Union with Christ.] A metrical epitome of a dozen or more of the attributes of Our Lord and His manifestation of loving kindness towards men, in which the word "Resting" is used eighteen times. Written June 11, 1876. Poetical Works, 1884, ii., p. 260. 10. Singing for Jesus, our Saviour and King. [Praise of Jesus.] Written at Winterdyne, June 12. 1872; published in her Under the Surface, 1874, p. 94, and her P. Works, 1884, ii., p. 70. 11. Unfurl the Christian Standard with firm and fearless hand. [Courage for the Christian Warfare. This begins with st. iv. of her hymn, "Unfurl the Christian Standard, lift it manfully on high," written at Perry Barr, Sep. 23, 1872 ; published in her Under the Surface, 1874; and her Poetical Works, 1884, ii. 12. Unto him that hath Thou givest. [Growth in Grace.] Written at Leasowes, April 12, 1876. P. Works, 1884, ii. 259. Of these hymns Nos. 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 12 were published in the first instance in J. Mountain's Hymns of Consecration and Faith, 1876. At the present time (1907) the number of Miss Havergal's hymns in common use reaches nearly one hundred. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, New Supplement (1907)

J. M. Neale

1818 - 1866 Person Name: John M. Neale Hymnal Number: 271 Author of "Lift Up, Lift Up Your Voices Now" in Yes, Lord! John M. Neale's life is a study in contrasts: born into an evangelical home, he had sympathies toward Rome; in perpetual ill health, he was incredibly productive; of scholarly tem­perament, he devoted much time to improving social conditions in his area; often ignored or despised by his contemporaries, he is lauded today for his contributions to the church and hymnody. Neale's gifts came to expression early–he won the Seatonian prize for religious poetry eleven times while a student at Trinity College, Cambridge, England. He was ordained in the Church of England in 1842, but ill health and his strong support of the Oxford Movement kept him from ordinary parish ministry. So Neale spent the years between 1846 and 1866 as a warden of Sackville College in East Grinstead, a retirement home for poor men. There he served the men faithfully and expanded Sackville's ministry to indigent women and orphans. He also founded the Sisterhood of St. Margaret, which became one of the finest English training orders for nurses. Laboring in relative obscurity, Neale turned out a prodigious number of books and artic1es on liturgy and church history, including A History of the So-Called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); an account of the Roman Catholic Church of Utrecht and its break from Rome in the 1700s; and his scholarly Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863). Neale contributed to church music by writing original hymns, including two volumes of Hymns for Children (1842, 1846), but especially by translating Greek and Latin hymns into English. These translations appeared in Medieval Hymns and Sequences (1851, 1863, 1867), The Hymnal Noted (1852, 1854), Hymns of the Eastern Church (1862), and Hymns Chiefly Medieval (1865). Because a number of Neale's translations were judged unsingable, editors usually amended his work, as evident already in the 1861 edition of Hymns Ancient and Modern; Neale claimed no rights to his texts and was pleased that his translations could contribute to hymnody as the "common property of Christendom." Bert Polman ======================== Neale, John Mason, D.D., was born in Conduit Street, London, on Jan. 24, 1818. He inherited intellectual power on both sides: his father, the Rev. Cornelius Neale, having been Senior Wrangler, Second Chancellor's Medallist, and Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, and his mother being the daughter of John Mason Good, a man of considerable learning. Both father and mother are said to have been "very pronounced Evangelicals." The father died in 1823, and the boy's early training was entirely under the direction of his mother, his deep attachment for whom is shown by the fact that, not long before his death, he wrote of her as "a mother to whom I owe more than I can express." He was educated at Sherborne Grammar School, and was afterwards a private pupil, first of the Rev. William Russell, Rector of Shepperton, and then of Professor Challis. In 1836 he went up to Cambridge, where he gained a scholarship at Trinity College, and was considered the best man of his year. But he did not inherit his father's mathematical tastes, and had, in fact, the greatest antipathy to the study; and as the strange rule then prevailed that no one might aspire to Classical Honours unless his name had appeared in the Mathematical Tripos, he was forced to be content with an ordinary degree. This he took in 1840; had he been one year later, he might have taken a brilliant degree, for in 1841 the rule mentioned above was rescinded. He gained, however, what distinctions he could, winning the Members' Prize, and being elected Fellow and Tutor of Downing College; while, as a graduate, he won the Seatonian Prize no fewer than eleven times. At Cambridge he identified himself with the Church movement, which was spreading there in a quieter, but no less real, way than in the sister University. He became one of the founders of the Ecclesiological, or, as it was commonly called, the Cambridge Camden Society, in conjunction with Mr. E. J. Boyce, his future brother-in-law, and Mr. Benjamin Webb, afterwards the well-known Vicar of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, and editor of The Church Quarterly Review. In 1842 he married Miss Sarah Norman Webster, the daughter of an evangelical clergyman, and in 1843 he was presented to the small incumbency of Crawley in Sussex. Ill health, however, prevented him from being instituted to the living. His lungs were found to be badly affected; and, as the only chance of saving his life, he was obliged to go to Madeira, where he stayed until the summer of 1844. In 1846 he was presented by Lord Delaware to the Wardenship of Sackville College, East Grinstead. This can hardly be considered as an ecclesiastical preferment, for both his predecessor and his successor were laymen. In fact the only ecclesiastical preferment that ever was offered to him was the Provostship of St. Ninian's, Perth. This was an honourable office, for the Provostship is equivalent to a Deanery in England, but it was not a lucrative one, being worth only £100 a year. He was obliged to decline it, as the climate was thought too cold for his delicate health. In the quiet retreat of East Grinstead, therefore, Dr. Neale spent the remainder of his comparatively short life, dividing his time between literary work, which all tended, directly or indirectly, to the advancement of that great Church revival of which he was so able and courageous a champion, and the unremitting care of that sisterhood of which he was the founder. He commenced a sisterhood at Rotherfield on a very small scale, in conjunction with Miss S. A. Gream, daughter of the rector of the parish; but in 1856 he transferred it to East Grinstead, where, under the name of St. Margaret's, it has attained its present proportions. Various other institutions gradually arose in connection with this Sisterhood of St. Margaret's, viz., an Orphanage, a Middle Class School for girls, and a House at Aldershot for the reformation of fallen women. The blessing which the East Grinstead Sisters have been to thousands of the sick and suffering cannot here be told. But it must be mentioned that Dr. Neale met with many difficulties, and great opposition from the outside, which, on one occasion, if not more, culminated in actual violence. In 1857 he was attending the funeral of one of the Sisters at Lewes, when a report was spread that the deceased had been decoyed into St. Margaret's Home, persuaded to leave all her money to the sisterhood, and then purposely sent to a post in which she might catch the scarlet fever of which she died. To those who knew anything of the scrupulously delicate and honourable character of Dr. Neale, such a charge would seem absurd on the face of it; but mobs are not apt to reflect, and it was very easy to excite a mob against the unpopular practices and sentiments rife at East Grinstead; and Dr. Neale and some Sisters who were attending the funeral were attacked and roughly handled. He also found opponents in higher quarters; he was inhibited by the Bishop of the Diocese for fourteen years, and the Aldershot House was obliged to be abandoned, after having done useful work for some years, in consequence of the prejudice of officials against the religious system pursued. Dr. Neale's character, however, was a happy mixture of gentleness and firmness; he had in the highest degree the courage of his convictions, which were remarkably definite and strong; while at the same time he maintained the greatest charity towards, and forbearance with, others who did not agree with him. It is not surprising, therefore, that he lived all opposition down; and that, while from first to last his relations with the community at East Grinstead were of the happiest description, he was also, after a time, spared any molestation from without. The institution grew upon his hands, and he became anxious to provide it with a permanent and fitting home. His last public act was to lay the foundation of a new convent for the Sisters on St. Margaret's Day (July 20), 1865. He lived long enough to see the building progress, but not to see it completed. In the following spring his health, which had always been delicate, completely broke down, and after five months of acute suffering he passed away on the Feast of the Transfiguration (Aug. 6), 1866, to the bitter regret of the little community at East Grinstead and of numberless friends outside that circle. One trait of his singularly lovable character must not pass unnoticed. His charity, both in the popular and in the truer Christian sense of the word, was unbounded; he was liberal and almost lavish with his money, and his liberality extended to men of all creeds and opinions; while it is pleasing to record that his relations with his ecclesiastical superiors so much improved that he dedicated his volume of Seatonian Poems to the bishop of the diocese. If however success in life depended upon worldly advantages, Dr. Neale's life would have to be pronounced a failure; for, as his old friend, Dr. Littledale, justly complains, "he spent nearly half his life where he died, in the position of warden of an obscure Almshouse on a salary of £27 a year." But, measured by a different standard, his short life assumes very different proportions. Not only did he win the love and gratitude of those with whom he was immediately connected, but he acquired a world-wide reputation as a writer, and he lived to see that Church revival, to promote which was the great object of his whole career, already advancing to the position which it now occupies in the land of his birth. Dr. Neale was an industrious and voluminous writer both in prose and verse; it is of course with the latter class of his writings that this sketch is chiefly concerned; but a few words must first be said about the former. I.— Prose Writings.— His first compositions were in the form of contributions to The Ecclesiologist, and were written during his graduate career at Cambridge. Whilst he was in Madeira he began to write his Commentary on the Psalms, part of which was published in 1860. It was afterwards given to the world, partly written by him and partly by his friend, Dr. Littledale, in 4 vols., in 1874, under the title of A Commentary on the Psalms, from Primitive and Mediaeval Writers. This work has been criticised as pushing the mystical interpretation to an extravagant extent. But Dr. Neale has anticipated and disarmed such criticism by distinctly stating at the commencement that "not one single mystical interpretation throughout the present Commentary is original;" and surely such a collection has a special value as a wholesome correction of the materialistic and rationalistic tendencies of the age. His next great work, written at Sackville College, was The History of the Holy Eastern Church. The General Introduction was published in 1847; then followed part of the History itself, The Patriarchate of Alexandria, in 2 vols.; and after his death another fragment was published, The History of the Patriarchate of Antioch, to which was added, Constantius's Memoirs of the Patriarchs of Antioch, translated from the Greek, edited by the Rev. G. Williams, 1 vol. The whole fragment was published in 5 vols. (1847-1873). The work is spoken very highly of, and constantly referred to, by Dean Stanley in his Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church. Dr. Neale was naturally in strong sympathy with the struggling Episcopal Church of Scotland, and to show that sympathy he published, in 1856, The Life and Times of Patrick Torry, D.D., Bishop of St. Andrews, &c, with an Appendix on the Scottish Liturgy. In the same direction was his History of the so-called Jansenist Church in Holland, 1858. Next followed Essays on Liturgiology and Church History, with an Appendix on Liturgical Quotations from the Isapostolical Fathers by the Rev. G. Moultrie, 1863, a 2nd edition of which, with an interesting Preface by Dr. Littledale, was published in 1867. It would be foreign to the purpose of this article to dwell on his other prose works, such as his published sermons, preached in Sackville College Chapel, his admirable little devotional work, Readings for the Aged, which was a selection from these sermons; the various works he edited, such as the Tetralogia Liturgica, the Sequentiae ex Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi Collectae; his edition of The Primitive Liturgies of S. Mark, S. Clement, S. James, S. Chrysostom and S. Basil, with a Preface by Dr. Littledale; his Translation of the same; his many stories from Church History, his Voices from the East, translated from the Russ, and his various articles contributed to the Ecclesiologist, The Christian Remembrance, The Morning Chronicle, and The Churchman's Companion. It is time to pass on to that with which we are directly concerned. II. —Poetical Writings.— As a sacred poet, Dr. Neale may be regarded under two aspects, as an original writer and as a translator. i. Original Writer.—Of his original poetry, the first specimen is Hymns for Children, published in 1842, which reached its 10th edition the year after his death. It consists of 33 short hymns, the first 19 for the different days of the week and different parts of the day, the last 14 for the different Church Seasons. This little volume was followed in 1844 by Hymns for the Young, which was intended to be a sequel to the former, its alternative title being A Second Series of Hymns for Children; but it is designed for an older class than the former, for young people rather than for children. The first 7 hymns are "for special occasions," as "on goiug to work," “leaving home” &c.; the next 8 on "Church Duties and Privileges," "Confirmation," "First Holy Communion," &c, the last 13 on "Church Festivals,” which, oddly enough, include the Four Ember Seasons, Rogation Days, and the Sundays in Advent. In both these works the severe and rigid style, copied, no doubt, from the old Latin hymns, is very observable. Perhaps this has prevented them from being such popular favourites as they otherwise might have been; but they are quite free from faults into which a writer of hymns for children is apt to fall. They never degenerate into mere prose in rhyme; and in every case the purity as well as the simplicity of their diction is very remarkable. In the same year (1844) he also published Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, which were written during his sojourn in Madeira, and the aim of which (he tells us) was "to set forth good and sound principles in metaphors which might, from their familiarity, come home to the hearts of those to whom they were addressed." They are wonderfully spirited both in matter and manner, and their freedom of style is as remarkable as the rigidity of the former works. They were followed eleven years later (1855) by a similar little work entitled Songs and Ballads for the People. This is of a more aggressive and controversial character than the previous ones, dealing boldly with such burning questions as "The Teetotallers," "Why don't you go to Meeting?" &c. Passing over the Seatonian Poems, most of which were of course written before those noticed above, we next come to the Hymns for the Side, which is a fitting companion to the Readings for the Aged, and then to Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses, which was published just after the author's death (1866), and may be regarded as a sort of dying legacy to the world. In fact, the writer almost intimates as much in the preface, where he speaks of himself as "one who might soon be called to have done with earthly composition for ever." Many of the verses, indeed, were written earlier, "forty years ago," he says, which is evidently intended for twenty. The preface is dated "In the Octave of S. James, 1866," and within a fortnight, on the Feast of the Transfiguration, “the veil” (to use the touching words of his old friend, Dr. Littledale) "was withdrawn from before his eyes, and the song hushed on earth is now swelling the chorus of Paradise." Was it an accident that these verses dwell so much on death and the life beyond the grave? or did the coming event cast its shadow before? Not that there is any sadness of tone about them; quite the reverse. He contemplates death, but it is with the eye of a Christian from whom the sting of death has been removed. Most of the verses are on subjects connected with the Church Seasons, especially with what are called the "Minor Festivals:" but the first and last poems are on different subjects. The first, the "Prologue," is "in dear memory of John Keble, who departed on Maundy Thursday, 1866, "and is a most touching tribute from one sacred poet to another whom he was about to follow within a few months to the "land that is very far off." The last is a poetical version of the legend of "the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus," and is, the writer thinks, "the first attempt to apply to primitive Christianity that which is, to his mind, the noblest of our measures." That measure is the hexameter, and undoubtedly Dr. Neale employed it, as he did all his measures, with great skill and effect; but it may be doubted whether the English language, in which the quantities of syllables are not so clearly defined as in Latin and Greek, is quite adapted for that measure. Throughout this volume, Dr. Neale rises to a far higher strain than he had ever reached before. ii. Translations.— It is in this species of composition that Dr. Neale's success was pre-eminent, one might almost say unique. He had all the qualifications of a good translator. He was not only an excellent classical scholar in the ordinary sense of the term, but he was also positively steeped in mediaeval Latin. An anecdote given in an appreciative notice by "G. M." [Moultrie] happily illustrates this:— Dr. Neale "was invited by Mr. Keble and the Bishop of Salisbury to assist them with their new hymnal, and for this purpose he paid a visit to Hursley Parsonage." On one occasion Mr. Keble "having to go to another room to find some papers was detained a short time. On his return Dr. Neale said, ‘Why, Keble, I thought you told me that the "Christian Year" was entirely original.' ‘Yes,' he answered, 'it certainly is.' ‘Then how comes this?' and Dr. Neale placed before him the Latin of one of Keble's hymns. Keble professed himself utterly confounded. He protested that he had never seen this 'original,' no, not in all his life. After a few minutes Neale relieved him by owning that he had just turned it into Latin in his absence." Again, Dr. Neale's exquisite ear for melody prevented him from spoiling the rhythm by too servile an imitation of the original; while the spiritedness which is a marked feature of all his poetry preserved that spring and dash which is so often wanting in a translation. (i.) Latin.— Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin include (1.) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences (1851). He was the, first to introduce to the English reader Sequences, that is, as he himself describes them, " hymns sung between the Epistle and Gospel in the Mass," or, as he explains more definitely, "hymns whose origin is to be looked for in the Alleluia of the Gradual sung between the Epistle and the Gospel." He was quite an enthusiast about this subject:— "It is a magnificent thing,” he says, "to pass along the far-stretching vista of hymns, from the sublime self-containedness of S. Ambrose to the more fervid inspiration of S. Gregory, the exquisite typology of Venantius Fortunatus, the lovely painting of St. Peter Damiani, the crystal-like simplicity of S. Notker, the scriptural calm of Godescalcus, the subjective loveliness of St. Bernard, till all culminate in the full blaze of glory which surrounds Adam of S. Victor, the greatest of them all." Feeling thus what a noble task he had before him, it is no wonder that he spared no pains over it, or that he felt it his duty to adopt "the exact measure and rhyme of the original, at whatever inconvenience and cramping." That he succeeded in his difficult work, the verdict of the public has sufficiently proved. Of all the translations in the English language no one has ever been so popular as that of the Hora Novissima, in this volume, afterwards (1858) published separately, under the title of the Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny. Some original hymns may be as well known as "Jerusalem the Golden," "For thee, O dear, dear country," or "Brief life is here our portion,” but it would be hard to find any translations which come near them for extensive use. A second edition of the Mediaeval Hymns, much improved, came out in 1863, and a third, "with very numerous additions and corrections," in 1867. (2.) We next come to the Hymnal Noted, in which 94 out of the 105 hymns are the work of Dr. Neale. These are all translations from the Latin. The first part appeared in 1852, the second in 1854. Dr. Neale has himself given us an interesting account of his connection with this work:— "Some," he writes, "of the happiest and most instructive hours of my life were spent in the Sub-Committee of the Ecclesiological Society, appointed for the purpose of bringing out the Second Part of the Hymnal Noted It was my business to lay before them the translations I had prepared, and theirs to correct. The study which this required drew out the beauties of the original in a way which nothing else could have done, and the friendly collisions of various minds elicited ideas which a single translator would in all probability have missed." Preface, Mediaeval Hymns & Sequences (3.) The last volume of translations from the Latin published by Dr. Neale appeared in 1865, under the title of Hymns, chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. It was intended to be a companion volume to the Rhythm of Bernard of Cluny. In this work the writer gives the general reader an opportunity of comparing the translation with the original by printing the two together in parallel pages. Before quitting the subject of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin, it is only fair to notice that while they have been almost universally accepted by the English Church, and some of them adopted by dissenting congregations, they called down upon the translator a storm of indignation from an opposite quarter. The Roman Catholics accused him of deliberate deception because he took no pains to point out that he had either softened down or entirely ignored the Roman doctrines in those hymns. So far, they said, as the originals were concerned, these translations were deliberate misrepresentations. As however the translations were intended for the use of the Anglican Church, it was only to be expected that Neale should omit such hymns or portions of hymns as would be at variance with her doctrines and discipline. (ii.) Greek.— Dr. Neale conferred even a greater boon upon the lovers of hymnology than by his translations from the Latin, when he published, in 1862, his Hymns of the Eastern Church. In his translations from the Latin he did what others had done before; but in his translations from the Greek he was opening entirely new ground. "It is," he says in his preface to the first edition, "a most remarkable fact, and one which shows how very little interest has been hitherto felt in the Eastern Church, that these are literally, I believe, the only English versions of any part of the treasures of Oriental Hymnology." As early as 1853 he had printed a few of his versions in The Ecclesiastic, but it was not till the appearance of the complete volume that the interest of the general public was awakened in them. Then they became wonderfully popular. His translations "Christian, dost thou see them?" "The day is past and over," "'Tis the day of Resurrection," and his Greek-inspired "Art thou weary," and "O happy band of pilgrims," are almost as great favourites as "Jerusalem the golden," and the first in his Hymns of the Eastern Church, "Fierce was the wild billow," deserves to be. Dr. Neale had a far more difficult task before him when he undertook these Greek hymns than he had with the Latin, and he appeals to the reader "not to forget the immense difficulty of an attempt so perfectly new as the present, when I have had no predecessors and therefore could have no master." That difficulty in comparison with the Latin cannot be better stated than in his own words:— "Though the superior terseness and brevity of the Latin hymns renders a translation which shall represent those qualities a work of great labour, yet still the versifier has the help of the same metre; his version may be line for line; and there is a great analogy between the collects and the hymns, most helpful to the translator. Above all, we have examples enough of former translation by which we may take pattern. But in attempting a Greek canon, from the fact of its being in prose (metrical hymns are unknown) one is all at sea. What measure shall we employ? Why this more than that? Might we attempt the rhythmical prose of the original, and design it to be chanted? Again, the great length of the canons renders them un suitable for our churches as wholes. Is it better simply to form centos of the more beautiful passages? or can separate odes, each necessarily imperfect, be employed as separate hymns? . . . My own belief is that the best way to employ Greek hymnology for the uses of the English Church would be by centos." That, in spite of these difficulties, Dr. Neale succeeded, is obvious. His Greek hymns are, indeed, adaptations rather than translations; but, besides their intrinsic beauty, they at any rate give some idea of what the Greek hymn-writers were. In this case, as in his translations from the Latin, he omitted what he held was not good from his Anglican point of view, e.g., the Doxologies to the Blessed Virgin Mary. One point strikes us as very remarkable in these hymns, and indeed in all Dr. Neale's poetry, viz., its thorough manliness of tone. Considering what his surroundings were, one might have expected a feminine tone in his writings. Dr. Littledale, in his most vivid and interesting sketch of Dr. Neale's life, to which the present writer is largely indebted, has remarked the same with regard to his teaching: "Instead of committing the grave error of feminising his sermons and counsels [at St. Margaret's] because he had only women to deal with, he aimed at showing them the masculine side of Christianity also, to teach them its strength as well as its beauty." In conclusion, it may be observed that no one had a higher opinion of the value of Dr. Neale's labours in the field of ancient and mediaeval hymnology than the one man whose competency to speak with authority on such a point Dr. Neale himself would assuredly have rated above that of all others. Over and over again Dr. Neale pays a tribute to the services rendered by Archbishop Trench in this domain; and the present sketch cannot more fitly close than with the testimony which Archbishop Trench has given of his sense of the services rendered by Dr. Neale. The last words of his preface to his Sacred Latin Poetry (ed. 1864) are:—" I will only, therefore, mention that by patient researches in almost all European lands, he [Dr. Neale] has brought to light a multitude of hymns unknown before: in a treatise on sequences, properly so-called, has for the first time explained their essential character; while to him the English reader owes versions of some of the best hymns, such as often successfully overcome the almost insuperable difficulties which many among them present to the translator." [Rev. J. H. Overton, D.D.] Dr. Neale's original hymns and translations appeared in the following works, most of which are referred to in the preceding article, and all of which are grouped together here to facilitate reference:— (1) Hymns for Children. Intended chiefly for Village Schools. London, Masters, 1842. (2) Hymns for the Sick. London, Masters, 1843, improved ed. 1849. (3) Hymns for the Young. A Second Series of Hymns for Children. London, Masters, 1844. (4) Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers. London, Masters, 1844. (5) Hymns for Children. A Third Series. London, Masters, 1846. (6) Mediaeval Hymns and Sequences. London, Masters. 1851; 2nd ed. 1861; 3rd. ed. 1863. (7) Hymnal Noted. London, Masters & Novello, 1852: enlarged 1854. Several of the translations were by other hands. Musical editions edited by the Rev. T. Helmore. It is from this work that a large number of Dr. Neale's translations from the Latin are taken. (8) Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. (9) Songs and Ballads for the People. 1855. (10) The Rhythm of Bernard de Morlaix, Monk of Cluny, on the Celestial Country. London, Hayes, 1st ed. 1858: 3rd ed., with revision of text, 1861. It contains both the Latin and the English translation. (11) Hymns of The Eastern Church, Translated with Notes and an Introduction. London, Hayes, 1862: 2nd ed. 1862: 3rd ed. 1866 : 4th ed., with Music and additional notes, edited by The Very Rev. S. G. Hatherly, Mus. B., Archpriest of the Patriarchal (Ecumenical Throne. London, Hayes, 1882. Several of these translations and notes appeared in The Ecclesiastic and Theologian, in 1853. (12) Hymns, Chiefly Mediaeval, on the Joys and Glories of Paradise. London, Hayes, 1865. This work contains notes on the hymns, and the Latin texts of the older amongst them. (13) Original Sequences, Hymns, and other Ecclesiastical Verses. London, Hayes, 1866. This collection of Original verse was published posthumously by Dr. Littledale. In addition to these works Dr. Neale published collections of Latin verse as:— 1.) Hymni Ecclesiae e Breviariis quibusdam et Missalibus Gallicanis, Germanis, Hispanis, Lusitanis, desumpti. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1851: and (2) Sequentiae e Missalibus Germanicis, Anglicis, Gallicis, aliisque Medii Aevi collectae. Oxford & Lond. J. H. Parker, 1852. A few of his translations appeared from time to time in The Ecclesiastic; and a few of his original hymns in The Christian Remembrancer. In the collection compiled for use at St. Margaret's, East Grinstead, St. Margaret's Hymnal, Printed Privately for the use of the Community only, 1875, there are several of his hymns not traceable elsewhere. [Many of his translations and original compositions are not listed here]. Some of the original hymns in common use which remain to be noted are:— i. From Hymns for Children, 1842. 1. No more sadness now, nor fasting. Christmas. 2. 0 Thou, Who through this holy week. Passiontide. 3. The day, 0 Lord, is spent. Evening. 4. The grass so green, the trees so tall. Morning of the Third Day. 5. Thou art gone up, 0 Lord, on high. Evening. 6. Thou, Who earnest from above. Whitsuntide. 7. With Thee, 0 Lord, begins the year. Circumcision, or, the New Year. ii. From Hymns for the Sick, 1843. 8. By no new path untried before. Support in Sickness. 9. Count not, the Lord's Apostle saith. Communion of the Sick. 10. Lord, if he sleepeth, he shall sure do well. Watching. 11. 0 Thou, Who rising long before the day. In a sleepless Night. 12. The Lord hath given, the Lord hath taken away. Death and Burial. 13. There is a stream, whose waters rise. In dangerous Sickness or Fever. 14. They slumber not nor sleep. Guardian Angels. 15. Thy servants militant below. In Affliction. iii. From Hymns for the Young, 2nd series, 1844. 16. Lord Jesus, Who shalt come with power. Ember Week in Advent. 17. 0 God, in danger and distress. In time of Trouble. 18. 0 God, we raise our hearts to Thee. Ember-Week in Advent. From this, "0 Lord, we come before Thee now” is taken. 19. 0 God, Who lovest to abide. Dedication of a Church. 20. 0 our Father, hear us now. Rogation. The first of three hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 21. 0 Saviour, Who hast call'd away. Death of a Minister. 22. 0 Thou, Who lov'st to send relief. In Sickness. 23. 0 Thou, Who once didst bless the ground. Ember-Week in September. 24. 0 Thou, Who, when Thou hadst begun. On going to Work. 25. Still, 0 Lord of hosts, we share. Rogation. The Second of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. 26. Strangers and pilgrims here below. On entering a new Dwelling to reside there. 27. They whose course on earth is o'er. Communion of Saints. From this, "Those whom many a land divides," is taken. 2S. Till its holy hours are past. Rogation. The third of his hymns on The Lord's Prayer. iv. Songs and Ballads for Manufacturers, 1844. 29. Work is over; God must speed it. Evening. v. Hymns for Children, 3rd series, 1846. 30. Before Thy Face, 0 God of old. St. John the Baptist. 31. By pain, and weariness, and doubt. St. Stephen. 32. First of the twelvefold band that trod. St. James. 33. Four streams through happy Eden flow'd. St. Mark. 34. Is there one who sets his face. St. Bartholomew. From this "He, for man who suffered woe," is taken. 35. Not a single sight we view. St. Matthias. 36. 0 Great Physician of the soul. St. Luke. 37. 0 Heavenly Wisdom, hear our cry. Christmas. “0 Sapientia." 38. 0 Key of David, hailed by those. Christmas. "0 Clavis David." 39. 0 Root of Jesse, Thou on Whom. Christmas. “O Radix Jesse." 40. 0 Thou, on Whom the nations [Gentiles] wait. Christmas. "0 Rex Gentium." 41. 0 Thou, Who earnest down of old [to call] . Christmas. "0 Adonai." 42. 0 Thou, Whose Name is God with us. Christmas. "0 Emmanuel." 43. 0 Very God of Very God. Christmas. "0 Oriens." 44. Saints of God, whom faith united. SS. Simon and Jude. 45. Since the time that first we came. St. Andrew. From this, "Every bird that upward springs," is taken. 46. That love is mighty love indeed. St. Barnabas. 47. We cannot plead, as others may. St. Matthew. 48. We have not seen, we cannot see. St. Thomas. 49. Would we go when life is o'er? St. Peter. v. Carols for Christmas and Eastertide. 1853. 50. Gabriel's message does away. Christmas. 51. Joy and gladness be to king and peasant. Christmas. 52. Joy to thee, joy to thee, Day of our victory. Easter. 53. Sing Alleluia, all ye lands. Easter. 54. The world itself keeps Easter Day. Easter. From this "There stood three Marys by the tomb," is taken. 55. With Christ we share a mystic grave. Easter or Holy Baptism. vi. From Sequences, Hymns, &c, 1866. 56. Can it, Master, can it be? Maundy Thursday. 57. Need it is we raise our eyes. All Saints. 58. Prostrate fell the Lord of all things. Maundy Thursday. 59. Rear the column, high and stately. All Saints. 60. The Paschal moonlight almost past. Easter. 61. Though the Octave-rainbow sometimes. Low Sunday. 62. When the earth was full of darkness. St. Margaret. 63. Young and old must raise the lay. Christmas Carol. vi. From the St. Margaret's Hymnal, 1875. 64. O gracious God, Who bid'st me now. On Leaving Some. 65. Thou Who came to save Thy people. For a School. 66. Thy praise the holy Infants shewed. Holy Innocents. These 66 hymns now in common use by no means represent Dr. Neale's position in modern hymnody. Many others must be added thereto. Even then, although the total is very large, it but feebly represents and emphasises the enormous influence which Di. Neale has exercised over modern hymnody. --John Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology (1907)


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